The efficacy and safety of netilmicin, 5 mg/kg of body weight once daily or 2 mg/kg thrice daily for 10 days, for the treatment of gram-negative pyelonephritis in children were compared in a prospective, randomized trial. Explicit criteria were used to define the site of infection, treatment outcome, and adverse effects. Netilmicin was given to 74 children once daily and to 70 children three times daily. At 1 week posttreatment, 73 (99%) of 74 children treated with netilmicin once daily and 70 (100%) of 70 children treated with netilmicin three times daily were cured. At 4 weeks posttreatment, no relapse was detected and the rate of reinfection was essentially identical in the two treatment groups. Peak serum netilmicin concentrations were higher in patients given the once-daily regimen, whereas a higher trough level was detected in patients given the three-times-daily regimen. Nephrotoxicity, which was defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level of ≥0.3 mg/dl over the baseline, was rare (3%) and reversible and occurred regardless of the treatment regimen. Ototoxicity, which was assessed by pure-tone audiometry (250 to 8,000 Hz) and brain stem- evoked response (6,000 Hz), occurred in 2 of 32 children who were evaluated. In these two children, who were given the once-daily regimen, wave V was not evokable monolaterally below 25 and 40 dB normal hearing level, respectively. Thus, it may be possible to treat childhood pyelonephritis with netilmicin once daily. However, this new approach needs to be confirmed in other studies.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy|
|Publication status||Published - 1992|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)