Comparison of a 3-day with a 1-day regimen of an extended-release formulation of ciprofloxacin as antimicrobial prophylaxis for patients undergoing transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate

Anthony J. Schaeffer, Francesco Montorsi, Vincenzo Scattoni, Renee Perroncel, James Song, Daniel C. Haverstock, Peter E. Pertel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and bacteriological efficacy and the clinical safety of a 1-day with a 3-day regimen of an extended-release formulation of ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin XR) given as antimicrobial prophylaxis to men undergoing transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate (TRNBP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multicentre, prospective, international, double-blind study in patients who required TRNBP. Patients were randomized to receive oral ciprofloxacin XR 1000 mg as either a 1-day or a 3-day regimen. Single doses were given at 24 h before, 2-3 h before, and 24 h after TRNBP. Patients in the 1-day regimen had placebo instead of the first and third doses of ciprofloxacin. RESULTS: Of 497 patients enrolled, 247 were randomized to 1-day ciprofloxacin XR and 250 to the 3-day regimen. In the population valid for microbiological efficacy, the final assessment identified bacteriological success (primary efficacy endpoint) in more patients who had the 3-day regimen (98%) than in those who received the 1-day regimen (94.8%, 95% confidence interval, CI, - 6.1%, 0.8%), although the difference was not statistically significant. In this population, the clinical response at the final visit was 98.5% and 96.7% for patients receiving the 3-day and the 1-day regimens, respectively (95% CI - 5.2%, 0.8%). However, in the clinical efficacy population the clinical success rate was significantly greater for the 3-day (99.0%) than for the 1-day regimen (95.8%; 95% CI - 6.4%, - 0.3%). In a multivariate analysis, patients with diabetes mellitus and patients with a history of prostatitis had higher microbiological and clinical failure rates, respectively, than those without such conditions. For these patients, all failures occurred among those treated with the 1-day regimen. CONCLUSION: As defined by bacteriological success in the population assessed for microbiological efficacy, prophylaxis with one dose of ciprofloxacin XR was statistically no worse than a 3-day regimen. However, in all efficacy analyses, bacteriological and clinical success rates were consistently lower for the 1-day than for the 3-day treatment. Thus, for selected patients undergoing TRNBP, there might be a role for 3-day preventive therapy with ciprofloxacin XR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-57
Number of pages7
JournalBJU International
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2007



  • Antimicrobial prophylaxis
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Extended release
  • Infection
  • Prostate biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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