Comparison of Different Methods for Estimating Cardiac Timings: A Comprehensive Multimodal Echocardiography Investigation

Parastoo Dehkordi, Farzad Khosrow-Khavar, Marco Di Rienzo, Omer T. Inan, Samuel E. Schmidt, Andrew P. Blaber, Kasper Sørensen, Johannes J. Struijk, Vahid Zakeri, Prospero Lombardi, Md Mobashir H. Shandhi, Mojtaba Borairi, John M. Zanetti, Kouhyar Tavakolian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiac time intervals are important hemodynamic indices and provide information about left ventricular performance. Phonocardiography (PCG), impedance cardiography (ICG), and recently, seismocardiography (SCG) have been unobtrusive methods of choice for detection of cardiac time intervals and have potentials to be integrated into wearable devices. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy and precision of beat-to-beat extraction of cardiac timings from the PCG, ICG and SCG recordings in comparison to multimodal echocardiography (Doppler, TDI, and M-mode) as the gold clinical standard. Recordings were obtained from 86 healthy adults and in total 2,120 cardiac cycles were analyzed. For estimation of the pre-ejection period (PEP), 43% of ICG annotations fell in the corresponding echocardiography ranges while this was 86% for SCG. For estimation of the total systolic time (TST), these numbers were 43, 80, and 90% for ICG, PCG, and SCG, respectively. In summary, SCG and PCG signals provided an acceptable accuracy and precision in estimating cardiac timings, as compared to ICG.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1057
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Publication statusPublished - Aug 22 2019


  • cardiac time intervals
  • echocardiography
  • impedance cardiography (ICG)
  • left ventricular ejection time (LVET)
  • phonocardiography (PCG)
  • pre-ejection period (PEP)
  • seismocardiography (SCG)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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