Our aim was to investigate the impact of a baseline New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV on clinical outcomes of a large real-world population who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The primary end points were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and re-hospitalization, evaluated at the longest available follow-up and by means of a 3-month landmark analysis. The secondary end points were: change in NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary pressure and mitral regurgitation. Out of 2,467 patients, 271 (11%) had a NYHA functional class IV at the admission. The latter had higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score (9.2% vs 5.5%; p < 0.001) compared to NYHA ≤ III patients, owing to more comorbidities (prior myocardial infarction, severe long-term kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular dysfunction, significant mitral regurgitation, pulmonary hypertension). Device success was similar between the two groups (93.7% vs 94.5%; p = 0.583). At a median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range 4 to 36 months) a lower freedom from primary end points was observed among NYHA IV versus NYHA ≤ III group (survival from all-cause death: 52% vs 58.4%; p = 0.002; survival from cardiovascular death: 72.5% vs 76.5%; p = 0.091; freedom from re-hospitalization: 81.5% vs 85.4%; p = 0.038). However, after adjustment for baseline imbalance, NYHA IV did not influence the relative risk of long-term primary end points. A 3-month landmark analysis showed that NYHA IV independently predicted 3-month all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 1.77; 95% CI [1.10 to 2.83]; p = 0.018 and hazard ratio: 1.64; 95% CI [1.03 to 2.59]; p = 0.036, respectively). Instead, after 3-month follow-up NYHA IV did not affect the risk of primary end points. A significant improvement of the secondary end points was noted in both NYHA IV and NYHA ≤≤ III groups. In conclusion, the presence of NYHA class IV in TAVI candidates was associated to a significant increased risk of mortality within 3 months. Patients with baseline NYHA IV who survived at 3 months had a long-term outcome comparable to that of other subjects. Left ventricular systolic function, pulmonary pressure, and mitral insufficiency significantly improved after TAVI regardless of baseline NYHA class IV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine