Comparison of Haploidentical Bone Marrow versus Matched Unrelated Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation with Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Acute Leukemia

Arnon Nagler, Myriam Labopin, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Emanuele Angelucci, Boris Afanasyev, Jan J Cornelissen, Simona Sica, Ellen Meijer, Fabio Ciceri, Gwendolyn Van Gorkom, Nicolaus Kröger, Hans Martin, Pietro Pioltelli, Antonio Risitano, Jonathan Canaani, Bipin N Savani, Jaime Sanz, Mohamad Mohty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE: Posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is increasingly being utilized as a principle GvHD prophylaxis strategy in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). A haploidentical (haplo) or matched unrelated donor (UD) is a valid option in the absence of a matched related donor.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We compared the outcomes of patients with acute leukemia who underwent haplo bone marrow (haplo-BM, N = 401) versus UD mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (UD-PB, N = 192) transplantation in the setting of PTCy.

RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 36 months in the haplo-BM group and 16.6 months in the UD-PB group, respectively (P < 0.01). Myeloablative conditioning was used in 64.6% and 42.7% of haplo-BM and UD-PB patients, respectively (P < 0.01). Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 30 was 87% in haplo-BM versus 94% in UD-PB, respectively (P = 0.21). In the multivariate analysis, the risk of grade 2-4 acute GvHD (HR = 0.53, P = 0.01) and chronic GvHD (HR = 0.50, P = 0.02) was significantly lower in the haplo-BM group compared with the UD-PB group. There was no significant difference between the study groups with respect to relapse incidence, nonrelapse mortality, leukemia-fee survival, overall survival, or GvHD-free and relapse-free survival.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of a haplo donor with a BM graft resulted in a lower incidence of GvHD compared with a UD-PB stem cell graft in the setting of PTCy for patients with acute leukemia. However, differences in GvHD did not translate into a difference in survival outcomes. Based upon these data, UD-PB or haplo-BM should be considered equally acceptable sources for allo-HCT.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClin. Cancer Res.
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Nov 4 2020

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