Comparison of Kaposi Sarcoma risk in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adults across 5 continents: A multiregional multicohort study

The AIDS-defining Cancer Project Working Group for IeDEA, COHERE in EuroCoord, Vincenzo Spagnuolo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. Methods: We included cohort data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults who started ART after 1995 within the framework of 2 large collaborations of observational HIV cohorts. We present incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Results: We included 208 140 patients from 57 countries. Over a period of 1 066 572 person-years, 2046 KS cases were diagnosed. KS incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 52 in the Asia-Pacific and ranged between 180 and 280 in the other regions. KS risk was 5 times higher in South African women (aHR, 4.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 2.73-7.62) than in their European counterparts, and 2 times higher in South African men (2.21; 1.34-3.63). In Europe, Latin, and North America KS risk was 6 times higher in men who have sex with men (aHR, 5.95; 95% CI, 5.09-6.96) than in women. Comparing patients with current CD4 cell counts ≥700 cells/μL with those whose counts were <50 cells/μL, the KS risk was halved in South Africa (aHR, 0.53; 95% CI, .17-1.63) but reduced by ≥95% in other regions. Conclusions. Despite important ART-related declines in KS incidence, men and women in South Africa and men who have sex with men remain at increased KS risk, likely due to high human herpesvirus 8 coinfection rates. Early ART initiation and maintenance of high CD4 cell counts are essential to further reducing KS incidence worldwide, but additional measures might be needed, especially in Southern Africa. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1316-1326
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume65
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Kaposi's Sarcoma
HIV
South Africa
Latin America
Incidence
Confidence Intervals
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
North America
Southern Africa
Human Herpesvirus 8
Secondary Prevention
Coinfection
Therapeutics

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Comparison of Kaposi Sarcoma risk in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adults across 5 continents: A multiregional multicohort study. / IeDEA, The AIDS-defining Cancer Project Working Group for; EuroCoord, COHERE in; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo.

In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 65, No. 8, 2017, p. 1316-1326.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

IeDEA, The AIDS-defining Cancer Project Working Group for ; EuroCoord, COHERE in ; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo. / Comparison of Kaposi Sarcoma risk in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adults across 5 continents: A multiregional multicohort study. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2017 ; Vol. 65, No. 8. pp. 1316-1326.
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abstract = "Background: We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. Methods: We included cohort data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults who started ART after 1995 within the framework of 2 large collaborations of observational HIV cohorts. We present incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Results: We included 208 140 patients from 57 countries. Over a period of 1 066 572 person-years, 2046 KS cases were diagnosed. KS incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 52 in the Asia-Pacific and ranged between 180 and 280 in the other regions. KS risk was 5 times higher in South African women (aHR, 4.56; 95{\%} confidence intervals [CI], 2.73-7.62) than in their European counterparts, and 2 times higher in South African men (2.21; 1.34-3.63). In Europe, Latin, and North America KS risk was 6 times higher in men who have sex with men (aHR, 5.95; 95{\%} CI, 5.09-6.96) than in women. Comparing patients with current CD4 cell counts ≥700 cells/μL with those whose counts were <50 cells/μL, the KS risk was halved in South Africa (aHR, 0.53; 95{\%} CI, .17-1.63) but reduced by ≥95{\%} in other regions. Conclusions. Despite important ART-related declines in KS incidence, men and women in South Africa and men who have sex with men remain at increased KS risk, likely due to high human herpesvirus 8 coinfection rates. Early ART initiation and maintenance of high CD4 cell counts are essential to further reducing KS incidence worldwide, but additional measures might be needed, especially in Southern Africa. {\circledC} The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.",
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AU - Spagnuolo, Vincenzo

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N2 - Background: We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. Methods: We included cohort data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults who started ART after 1995 within the framework of 2 large collaborations of observational HIV cohorts. We present incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Results: We included 208 140 patients from 57 countries. Over a period of 1 066 572 person-years, 2046 KS cases were diagnosed. KS incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 52 in the Asia-Pacific and ranged between 180 and 280 in the other regions. KS risk was 5 times higher in South African women (aHR, 4.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 2.73-7.62) than in their European counterparts, and 2 times higher in South African men (2.21; 1.34-3.63). In Europe, Latin, and North America KS risk was 6 times higher in men who have sex with men (aHR, 5.95; 95% CI, 5.09-6.96) than in women. Comparing patients with current CD4 cell counts ≥700 cells/μL with those whose counts were <50 cells/μL, the KS risk was halved in South Africa (aHR, 0.53; 95% CI, .17-1.63) but reduced by ≥95% in other regions. Conclusions. Despite important ART-related declines in KS incidence, men and women in South Africa and men who have sex with men remain at increased KS risk, likely due to high human herpesvirus 8 coinfection rates. Early ART initiation and maintenance of high CD4 cell counts are essential to further reducing KS incidence worldwide, but additional measures might be needed, especially in Southern Africa. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

AB - Background: We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. Methods: We included cohort data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults who started ART after 1995 within the framework of 2 large collaborations of observational HIV cohorts. We present incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Results: We included 208 140 patients from 57 countries. Over a period of 1 066 572 person-years, 2046 KS cases were diagnosed. KS incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 52 in the Asia-Pacific and ranged between 180 and 280 in the other regions. KS risk was 5 times higher in South African women (aHR, 4.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 2.73-7.62) than in their European counterparts, and 2 times higher in South African men (2.21; 1.34-3.63). In Europe, Latin, and North America KS risk was 6 times higher in men who have sex with men (aHR, 5.95; 95% CI, 5.09-6.96) than in women. Comparing patients with current CD4 cell counts ≥700 cells/μL with those whose counts were <50 cells/μL, the KS risk was halved in South Africa (aHR, 0.53; 95% CI, .17-1.63) but reduced by ≥95% in other regions. Conclusions. Despite important ART-related declines in KS incidence, men and women in South Africa and men who have sex with men remain at increased KS risk, likely due to high human herpesvirus 8 coinfection rates. Early ART initiation and maintenance of high CD4 cell counts are essential to further reducing KS incidence worldwide, but additional measures might be needed, especially in Southern Africa. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

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SN - 1058-4838

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