Comparison of Outcomes and Toxicity Between Extreme and Moderate Radiation Therapy Hypofractionation in Localized Prostate Cancer: A Propensity Score Analysis

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Abstract

Purpose: To compare clinical outcomes and toxicities of 2 radiation therapy (RT) schemes for localized prostate cancer (PCa): extreme hypofractionation (EH; fractions of 6.5-7 Gy to a total dose of 32.5-35 Gy) and the moderate hypofractionation (MH; 26 fractions of 2.7 Gy to a total dose of 70.2 Gy). A propensity score method was used to compare the EH-RT and MH-RT groups. Methods and Materials: Our analysis included a total of 421 patients divided in 2 groups: 227 treated with MH-RT and 194 treated with EH-RT (43 and 30 months median follow-up, respectively). Propensity matching created comparable cohorts. Statistical evaluations were performed on the whole cohort, stratifying the analyses by risk strata factors identified with the propensity scores, and on a subgroup of patients matched by propensity score. Multivariate proportional hazard Cox models were used to compare the 2 groups, mainly for gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity and secondarily for clinical progression-free survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Considering the whole population, acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal greater than grade 1 was significantly more frequent in the whole MH-RT group (P < .001 and P < .002, respectively). A borderline significantly greater late genitourinary was confirmed with the multivariate analysis (P = .07). Concerning tumor outcome, no statistically significant differences were observed. After propensity score matching, 226 patients were included in the analysis. The 2 obtained propensity score matched groups did not differ for any of the clinical and pathologic variables considered for the analysis, resulting in well-balanced cohorts. The results obtained on the whole population were confirmed in the matched groups. Conclusions: EH-RT yields a decreased risk of acute or late toxicities compared with MH-RT, and oncologic outcomes were comparable. Our data indicate that EH-RT might be considered as a treatment modality of choice for select patients with PCa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)735-744
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume105
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 15 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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