Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for children with special health care needs: A comparative usage study in Italy

L. Provenzi, Francesco Saettini, Serena Barello, R. Borgatti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used by families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), mainly as an integrative approach with regards to conventional treatments. Nonetheless, studies comparing CAM usage among families of CSHCN with different pediatric diagnoses are sparse. The present study aimed at investigating features of CAM usage among Italian families of CSHCN with different common pediatric diseases. Methods: One-hundred and twenty-one families were interviewed about access to conventional treatments and CAM usage for the care of their children. Four groups were identified based on childrens' diagnosis: autistic spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, genetic syndrome, and pediatric tumors. Main areas of investigation were pharmacological treatment, access to conventional rehabilitation programs, typology of CAM used, scopes of CAM usage, maternal perceived efficacy, CAM expenditure per month. Results: Access to traditional pharmacological treatment and conventional rehabilitation was unrelated to CAM usage. Mothers of children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders were found to use more CAM, with higher economic expenditure and lower perceived efficacy compared to the other groups. Conclusions: The present findings document different patterns of CAM usage among families of CSHCN with different diagnoses in Italy. Clinical and ethical insights for family-physician relationship are further discussed. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-121
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Integrative Medicine
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Complementary Therapies
Italy
Delivery of Health Care
Pediatrics
Autistic Disorder
Health Expenditures
Rehabilitation
Mothers
Pharmacology
Family Physicians
Cerebral Palsy
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • CAM
  • Children
  • Developmental disability
  • Parents
  • Pediatrics

Cite this

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for children with special health care needs: A comparative usage study in Italy. / Provenzi, L.; Saettini, Francesco; Barello, Serena; Borgatti, R.

In: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2016, p. 115-121.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for children with special health care needs: A comparative usage study in Italy",
abstract = "Introduction: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used by families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), mainly as an integrative approach with regards to conventional treatments. Nonetheless, studies comparing CAM usage among families of CSHCN with different pediatric diagnoses are sparse. The present study aimed at investigating features of CAM usage among Italian families of CSHCN with different common pediatric diseases. Methods: One-hundred and twenty-one families were interviewed about access to conventional treatments and CAM usage for the care of their children. Four groups were identified based on childrens' diagnosis: autistic spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, genetic syndrome, and pediatric tumors. Main areas of investigation were pharmacological treatment, access to conventional rehabilitation programs, typology of CAM used, scopes of CAM usage, maternal perceived efficacy, CAM expenditure per month. Results: Access to traditional pharmacological treatment and conventional rehabilitation was unrelated to CAM usage. Mothers of children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders were found to use more CAM, with higher economic expenditure and lower perceived efficacy compared to the other groups. Conclusions: The present findings document different patterns of CAM usage among families of CSHCN with different diagnoses in Italy. Clinical and ethical insights for family-physician relationship are further discussed. {\circledC} 2015 Elsevier GmbH.",
keywords = "CAM, Children, Developmental disability, Parents, Pediatrics",
author = "L. Provenzi and Francesco Saettini and Serena Barello and R. Borgatti",
note = "Export Date: 14 March 2017 Correspondence Address: Provenzi, L.; 0-3 Center for the Study of Social Emotional Development of the at-Risk Infant, Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea, via Don Luigi Monza 20, Italy; email: livio.provenzi@bp.lnf.it References: Manheimer, E., Berman, B., NCCAM support for the Cochrane collaboration CAM field (2003) Complement. Ther. Med., 11, pp. 268-271; Vlieger, A.M., Discussing complementary and alternative medicine use for children (2007) Patient Educ. Couns., 68, pp. 1-2; Barnes, P.M., Bloom, B., Nahin, R.L., Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States (2007) Natl. Health Stat. Rep., 10, pp. 1-23; Ottolini, M.C., Hamburger, E.K., Loprieato, J.O., Coleman, R.H., Sachs, H.C., Madden, R., Complementary and alternative medicine use among children in the Washington, DC area (2001) Ambul. Pediatr., 1, pp. 122-125; Kemper, K.J., McLean, T.W., Parents' attitudes and expectations about music's impact on pediatric oncology patients (2008) J. Soc. Integr. Oncol., 6, pp. 146-149; Kemper, K.J., Cassileth, B., Ferris, T., Holistic pediatrics: a research agenda (1999) Pediatrics, 103, pp. 902-909; Surette, S., Vanderjagt, L., Vohra, S., Surveys of complementary and alternative medicine usage: a scoping study of the paediatric literature (2013) Complement. Ther. Med., 21, pp. S48-S53; Christon, L.M., Mackintosh, V.H., Myers, B.J., Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (2010) Res. Autism Spectr. Disord., 4, pp. 249-259; Akins, R.S., Krakowiak, P., Angkustsiri, K., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Hansen, R.L., Utilization patterns of conventional and complementary/alternative treatments in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities in a population-based study (2014) J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., 35, pp. 1-10; Huang, A., Seshadri, K., Matthews, T.A., Ostfeld, B.M., Parental perspectives on use, benefits, and physician knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autistic disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (2013) J. Altern. Complement. Med., 19, pp. 746-750; Valicenti-McDermott, M., Burrows, B., Bernstein, L., Hottinger, K., Lawson, K., Seijo, R., Use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism and other developmental disabilities: associations with ethnicity, child comorbid symptoms, and parental stress (2014) J. Child Neurol., 29, pp. 360-367; Levy, S.E., Hyman, S.L., Use of complementary and alternative treatments: for children with autistic spectrum disorders is increasing (2003) Pediatr. Ann., 32, pp. 685-691; Levy, S.E., Mandell, D.S., Merhar, S., Ittenbach, R.F., Pinto-Martin, J.A., Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children recently diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder (2003) J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., 24, pp. 418-423; Majnemer, A., Shikako-Thomas, K., Shevell, M.I., Poulin, C., Lach, L., Schmitz, N., Pursuit of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in adolescents with cerebral palsy (2013) J. Child Neurol., 28, pp. 1443-1447; Samdup, D.Z., Smith, R.G., Il Song, S., The use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with chronic medical conditions (2006) Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 85, pp. 842-846; Hurvitz, E.A., Leonard, C., Ayyangar, R., Nelson, V.S., Complementary and alternative medicine use in families of children with cerebral palsy (2003) Dev. Med. Child Neurol., 45, pp. 364-370; Liptak, G.S., Complementary and alternative therapies for cerebral palsy (2005) Ment. Retard. Dev. Disabil. Res. Rev., 11, pp. 156-163; Brown, K.A., Patel, D.R., Complementary and alternative medicine in developmental disabilities (2005) Indian J. Pediatr., 72, pp. 949-952; Prussing, E., Sobo, E.J., Walker, E., Dennis, K., Kurtin, P.S., Communicating with pediatricians about complementary/alternative medicine: perspectives from parents of children with down syndrome (2004) Ambul. Pediatr., 4, pp. 488-494; O'Connor, N., Graham, D., O'Meara, A., Devins, M., Jennings, V., O'Leary, D., The use of complementary and alternative medicine by Irish pediatric cancer patients (2013) J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol., 35, pp. 537-542; Ndao, D.H., Ladas, E.J., Bao, Y., Cheng, B., Nees, S.N., Levine, J.M., Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: a survey study (2013) J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol., 35, pp. 281-288; Ladas, E.J., Rivas, S., Ndao, D., Damoulakis, D., Bao, Y.Y., Cheng, B., Use of traditional and complementary/alternative medicine (TCAM) in children with cancer in Guatemala (2014) Pediatr. Blood Cancer, 61, pp. 687-692; Revuelta-Iniesta, R., Wilson, M.L., White, K., Stewart, L., McKenzie, J.M., Wilson, D.C., Complementary and alternative medicine usage in Scottish children and adolescents during cancer treatment (2014) Complement. Ther. Clin. Pract., 20, pp. 197-202; Gottschling, S., Meyer, S., L{\"a}ngler, A., Scharifi, G., Ebinger, F., Gronwald, B., Differences in use of complementary and alternative medicine between children and adolescents with cancer in Germany: a population based survey (2014) Pediatr. Blood Cancer, 61, pp. 488-492; McFadden, K.L., Hernndez, T.D., Ito, T.A., Attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine influence its use (2010) Explore, 6, pp. 380-388; Glew, G.M., Fan, M.Y., Hagland, S., Bjornson, K., Beider, S., McLaughlin, J.F., Survey of the use of massage for children with cerebral palsy (2010) Int. J. Ther. Massage Bodywork, 3, pp. 10-15; Nahin, R.L., Barnes, P.M., Stussman, B.J., Bloom, B., Costs of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and frequency of visits to CAM practitioners: United States, 2007 (2009) Natl. Health Stat. Rep., 18, pp. 1-4; Oppenheim, W.L., Complementary and alternative methods in cerebral palsy (2009) Dev. Med. Child Neurol., 51, pp. 122-129; Perrin, J.M., Coury, D.L., Hyman, S.L., Cole, L., Reynolds, A.M., Clemons, T., Complementary and alternative medicine use in a large pediatric autism sample (2012) Pediatrics, 130, pp. S77-S82; Rosenbaum, C.C., The history of complementary and alternative medicine in the US (2007) Ann. Pharmacother., 41, pp. 1256-1260; Rosenbaum, P., Controversial treatment of spasticity: exploring alternative therapies for motor function in children with cerebral palsy (2003) J. Child Neurol., 18, pp. S89-S94; Levy, S.E., Hyman, S.L., Alternative/complementary approaches to treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (2002) Infants Young Child., 14, pp. 33-42; Buehler, B.A., Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in genetics (2007) Am. J. Med. Genet. A, pp. 2889-2892. , 143; Cuzzolin, L., Zaffani, S., Murgia, V., Gangemi, M., Meneghelli, G., Chiamenti, G., Patterns and perceptions of complementary/alternative medicine among paediatricians and patients' mothers: a review of the literature (2003) Eur J Pediatr, 162, pp. 820-827; Ernst, E., Prevalence of complementary/alternative medicine for children: a systematic review (1999) Eur. J. Pediatr., 158, pp. 7-11; Madsen, H., Andersen, S., Gaardskaer Nielsen, R., Dolmer, B.S., Host, A., Damkier, A., Use of complementary/alternative medicine among paediatric patients (2003) Eur. J. Pediatr., 162, pp. 334-341; Karst, J.S., van Hecke, A.V., Parent and family impact of autism spectrum disorders: a review and proposed model for intervention evaluation (2012) Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev., 15, pp. 247-277; Hanson, E., Kalish, L.A., Bunce, E., Curtis, C., McDaniel, S., Ware, J., Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (2007) J. Autism Dev. Disord., 37, pp. 628-636; Gupta, V.B., Communicating with parents of children with autism about vaccines and complementary and alternative approaches (2010) J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., 31, pp. 343-345; Gottschling, S., Gronwald, B., Schmitt, S., Schmitt, C., Langler, A., Leidig, E., Use of complementary and alternative medicine in healthy children and children with chronic medical conditions in Germany (2013) Complement. Ther. Med., 21S, pp. S61-S69; Wye, L., Shaw, A., Sharp, D., Same difference? Complementary therapy consultations delivered in NHS and private settings (2013) A Qualitative Study. Eur J Integr Med, 5, pp. 339-346; Kemper, K.J., O'Connor, K.G., Pediatricians' recommendations for complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies (2004) Ambul. Pediatr., 4, pp. 482-487; Jankovic, M., Spinetta, J.J., Martins, A.G., Pession, A., Sullivan, M., D'Angio, G.J., Eden, T., Masera, G., Non-conventional therapies in childhood cancer: guidelines for distinguishing non-harmful and harmful therapies: a report of the SIOP working committee on psychosocial issues in pediatric oncology (2004) Pediatr. Blood Cancer, 42, pp. 106-108",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.eujim.2015.06.005",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "115--121",
journal = "European Journal of Integrative Medicine",
issn = "1876-3820",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for children with special health care needs: A comparative usage study in Italy

AU - Provenzi, L.

AU - Saettini, Francesco

AU - Barello, Serena

AU - Borgatti, R.

N1 - Export Date: 14 March 2017 Correspondence Address: Provenzi, L.; 0-3 Center for the Study of Social Emotional Development of the at-Risk Infant, Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea, via Don Luigi Monza 20, Italy; email: livio.provenzi@bp.lnf.it References: Manheimer, E., Berman, B., NCCAM support for the Cochrane collaboration CAM field (2003) Complement. Ther. Med., 11, pp. 268-271; Vlieger, A.M., Discussing complementary and alternative medicine use for children (2007) Patient Educ. Couns., 68, pp. 1-2; Barnes, P.M., Bloom, B., Nahin, R.L., Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States (2007) Natl. Health Stat. Rep., 10, pp. 1-23; Ottolini, M.C., Hamburger, E.K., Loprieato, J.O., Coleman, R.H., Sachs, H.C., Madden, R., Complementary and alternative medicine use among children in the Washington, DC area (2001) Ambul. Pediatr., 1, pp. 122-125; Kemper, K.J., McLean, T.W., Parents' attitudes and expectations about music's impact on pediatric oncology patients (2008) J. Soc. Integr. Oncol., 6, pp. 146-149; Kemper, K.J., Cassileth, B., Ferris, T., Holistic pediatrics: a research agenda (1999) Pediatrics, 103, pp. 902-909; Surette, S., Vanderjagt, L., Vohra, S., Surveys of complementary and alternative medicine usage: a scoping study of the paediatric literature (2013) Complement. Ther. Med., 21, pp. S48-S53; Christon, L.M., Mackintosh, V.H., Myers, B.J., Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (2010) Res. Autism Spectr. Disord., 4, pp. 249-259; Akins, R.S., Krakowiak, P., Angkustsiri, K., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Hansen, R.L., Utilization patterns of conventional and complementary/alternative treatments in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities in a population-based study (2014) J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., 35, pp. 1-10; Huang, A., Seshadri, K., Matthews, T.A., Ostfeld, B.M., Parental perspectives on use, benefits, and physician knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autistic disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (2013) J. Altern. Complement. Med., 19, pp. 746-750; Valicenti-McDermott, M., Burrows, B., Bernstein, L., Hottinger, K., Lawson, K., Seijo, R., Use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism and other developmental disabilities: associations with ethnicity, child comorbid symptoms, and parental stress (2014) J. Child Neurol., 29, pp. 360-367; Levy, S.E., Hyman, S.L., Use of complementary and alternative treatments: for children with autistic spectrum disorders is increasing (2003) Pediatr. Ann., 32, pp. 685-691; Levy, S.E., Mandell, D.S., Merhar, S., Ittenbach, R.F., Pinto-Martin, J.A., Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children recently diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder (2003) J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., 24, pp. 418-423; Majnemer, A., Shikako-Thomas, K., Shevell, M.I., Poulin, C., Lach, L., Schmitz, N., Pursuit of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in adolescents with cerebral palsy (2013) J. Child Neurol., 28, pp. 1443-1447; Samdup, D.Z., Smith, R.G., Il Song, S., The use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with chronic medical conditions (2006) Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 85, pp. 842-846; Hurvitz, E.A., Leonard, C., Ayyangar, R., Nelson, V.S., Complementary and alternative medicine use in families of children with cerebral palsy (2003) Dev. Med. Child Neurol., 45, pp. 364-370; Liptak, G.S., Complementary and alternative therapies for cerebral palsy (2005) Ment. Retard. Dev. Disabil. Res. Rev., 11, pp. 156-163; Brown, K.A., Patel, D.R., Complementary and alternative medicine in developmental disabilities (2005) Indian J. Pediatr., 72, pp. 949-952; Prussing, E., Sobo, E.J., Walker, E., Dennis, K., Kurtin, P.S., Communicating with pediatricians about complementary/alternative medicine: perspectives from parents of children with down syndrome (2004) Ambul. Pediatr., 4, pp. 488-494; O'Connor, N., Graham, D., O'Meara, A., Devins, M., Jennings, V., O'Leary, D., The use of complementary and alternative medicine by Irish pediatric cancer patients (2013) J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol., 35, pp. 537-542; Ndao, D.H., Ladas, E.J., Bao, Y., Cheng, B., Nees, S.N., Levine, J.M., Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: a survey study (2013) J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol., 35, pp. 281-288; Ladas, E.J., Rivas, S., Ndao, D., Damoulakis, D., Bao, Y.Y., Cheng, B., Use of traditional and complementary/alternative medicine (TCAM) in children with cancer in Guatemala (2014) Pediatr. Blood Cancer, 61, pp. 687-692; Revuelta-Iniesta, R., Wilson, M.L., White, K., Stewart, L., McKenzie, J.M., Wilson, D.C., Complementary and alternative medicine usage in Scottish children and adolescents during cancer treatment (2014) Complement. Ther. Clin. Pract., 20, pp. 197-202; Gottschling, S., Meyer, S., Längler, A., Scharifi, G., Ebinger, F., Gronwald, B., Differences in use of complementary and alternative medicine between children and adolescents with cancer in Germany: a population based survey (2014) Pediatr. Blood Cancer, 61, pp. 488-492; McFadden, K.L., Hernndez, T.D., Ito, T.A., Attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine influence its use (2010) Explore, 6, pp. 380-388; Glew, G.M., Fan, M.Y., Hagland, S., Bjornson, K., Beider, S., McLaughlin, J.F., Survey of the use of massage for children with cerebral palsy (2010) Int. J. Ther. Massage Bodywork, 3, pp. 10-15; Nahin, R.L., Barnes, P.M., Stussman, B.J., Bloom, B., Costs of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and frequency of visits to CAM practitioners: United States, 2007 (2009) Natl. Health Stat. Rep., 18, pp. 1-4; Oppenheim, W.L., Complementary and alternative methods in cerebral palsy (2009) Dev. Med. Child Neurol., 51, pp. 122-129; Perrin, J.M., Coury, D.L., Hyman, S.L., Cole, L., Reynolds, A.M., Clemons, T., Complementary and alternative medicine use in a large pediatric autism sample (2012) Pediatrics, 130, pp. S77-S82; Rosenbaum, C.C., The history of complementary and alternative medicine in the US (2007) Ann. Pharmacother., 41, pp. 1256-1260; Rosenbaum, P., Controversial treatment of spasticity: exploring alternative therapies for motor function in children with cerebral palsy (2003) J. Child Neurol., 18, pp. S89-S94; Levy, S.E., Hyman, S.L., Alternative/complementary approaches to treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (2002) Infants Young Child., 14, pp. 33-42; Buehler, B.A., Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in genetics (2007) Am. J. Med. Genet. A, pp. 2889-2892. , 143; Cuzzolin, L., Zaffani, S., Murgia, V., Gangemi, M., Meneghelli, G., Chiamenti, G., Patterns and perceptions of complementary/alternative medicine among paediatricians and patients' mothers: a review of the literature (2003) Eur J Pediatr, 162, pp. 820-827; Ernst, E., Prevalence of complementary/alternative medicine for children: a systematic review (1999) Eur. J. Pediatr., 158, pp. 7-11; Madsen, H., Andersen, S., Gaardskaer Nielsen, R., Dolmer, B.S., Host, A., Damkier, A., Use of complementary/alternative medicine among paediatric patients (2003) Eur. J. Pediatr., 162, pp. 334-341; Karst, J.S., van Hecke, A.V., Parent and family impact of autism spectrum disorders: a review and proposed model for intervention evaluation (2012) Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev., 15, pp. 247-277; Hanson, E., Kalish, L.A., Bunce, E., Curtis, C., McDaniel, S., Ware, J., Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (2007) J. Autism Dev. Disord., 37, pp. 628-636; Gupta, V.B., Communicating with parents of children with autism about vaccines and complementary and alternative approaches (2010) J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., 31, pp. 343-345; Gottschling, S., Gronwald, B., Schmitt, S., Schmitt, C., Langler, A., Leidig, E., Use of complementary and alternative medicine in healthy children and children with chronic medical conditions in Germany (2013) Complement. Ther. Med., 21S, pp. S61-S69; Wye, L., Shaw, A., Sharp, D., Same difference? Complementary therapy consultations delivered in NHS and private settings (2013) A Qualitative Study. Eur J Integr Med, 5, pp. 339-346; Kemper, K.J., O'Connor, K.G., Pediatricians' recommendations for complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies (2004) Ambul. Pediatr., 4, pp. 482-487; Jankovic, M., Spinetta, J.J., Martins, A.G., Pession, A., Sullivan, M., D'Angio, G.J., Eden, T., Masera, G., Non-conventional therapies in childhood cancer: guidelines for distinguishing non-harmful and harmful therapies: a report of the SIOP working committee on psychosocial issues in pediatric oncology (2004) Pediatr. Blood Cancer, 42, pp. 106-108

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Introduction: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used by families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), mainly as an integrative approach with regards to conventional treatments. Nonetheless, studies comparing CAM usage among families of CSHCN with different pediatric diagnoses are sparse. The present study aimed at investigating features of CAM usage among Italian families of CSHCN with different common pediatric diseases. Methods: One-hundred and twenty-one families were interviewed about access to conventional treatments and CAM usage for the care of their children. Four groups were identified based on childrens' diagnosis: autistic spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, genetic syndrome, and pediatric tumors. Main areas of investigation were pharmacological treatment, access to conventional rehabilitation programs, typology of CAM used, scopes of CAM usage, maternal perceived efficacy, CAM expenditure per month. Results: Access to traditional pharmacological treatment and conventional rehabilitation was unrelated to CAM usage. Mothers of children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders were found to use more CAM, with higher economic expenditure and lower perceived efficacy compared to the other groups. Conclusions: The present findings document different patterns of CAM usage among families of CSHCN with different diagnoses in Italy. Clinical and ethical insights for family-physician relationship are further discussed. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.

AB - Introduction: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used by families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), mainly as an integrative approach with regards to conventional treatments. Nonetheless, studies comparing CAM usage among families of CSHCN with different pediatric diagnoses are sparse. The present study aimed at investigating features of CAM usage among Italian families of CSHCN with different common pediatric diseases. Methods: One-hundred and twenty-one families were interviewed about access to conventional treatments and CAM usage for the care of their children. Four groups were identified based on childrens' diagnosis: autistic spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, genetic syndrome, and pediatric tumors. Main areas of investigation were pharmacological treatment, access to conventional rehabilitation programs, typology of CAM used, scopes of CAM usage, maternal perceived efficacy, CAM expenditure per month. Results: Access to traditional pharmacological treatment and conventional rehabilitation was unrelated to CAM usage. Mothers of children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders were found to use more CAM, with higher economic expenditure and lower perceived efficacy compared to the other groups. Conclusions: The present findings document different patterns of CAM usage among families of CSHCN with different diagnoses in Italy. Clinical and ethical insights for family-physician relationship are further discussed. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.

KW - CAM

KW - Children

KW - Developmental disability

KW - Parents

KW - Pediatrics

U2 - 10.1016/j.eujim.2015.06.005

DO - 10.1016/j.eujim.2015.06.005

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 115

EP - 121

JO - European Journal of Integrative Medicine

JF - European Journal of Integrative Medicine

SN - 1876-3820

IS - 2

ER -