Complete genome characterization of enterovirus 104 circulating in Northern Italy shows recombinant origin of the P3 region

Antonio Piralla, Loretta Fiorina, Cristina Daleno, Susanna Esposito, Fausto Baldanti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Human enterovirus 104 (EV-C104) is a member of the Human Enterovirus species C (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus) and has been associated with mild respiratory syndromes. At present, only two EV-C104 complete genome sequences from strains detected in Switzerland and Japan have been deposited in GenBank. In this study a complete genome analysis of seven Italian EV-C104 strains was carried out. In addition, VP1 sequence analysis was performed in an additional 5 Italian strains (for a total of 12 strains). The genome length of the seven strains was 7406 nucleotides (nt). The seven genomes showed 91.0-96.9% nucleotide identity with respect to other available EV-C104 complete genomes. The P1 and P2 regions of the Italian strains were closely related to EV-C104 identified in Switzerland, while the P3 region was closely related to the EV-C117 strain. In addition, bootscan analysis showed the presence of one putative recombination breakpoint between the P2 and P3 regions. Based on the trees constructed with partial VP1/2A nucleotide sequences, as well as the 3D partial coding region tree, the Italian strains appear to form a single and independent cluster together with the EV-C104 Japanese strain. In conclusion, a complete phylogenetic analysis of the relationship between EV-C104 and other known HEV-C strains was achieved. In addition, the recombinant origin of EV-C104, which has circulated in Italy and Japan, was demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-117
Number of pages7
JournalInfection, Genetics and Evolution
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Complete genome
  • EV-C104
  • Phylogenetic analysis
  • Recombination
  • Respiratory infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)


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