Compliance rates with the Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) protocol and disease reclassification in noncompliers

Leonard P. Bokhorst, Arnout R. Alberts, Antti Rannikko, Riccardo Valdagni, Tom Pickles, Yoshiyuki Kakehi, Chris H. Bangma, Monique J. Roobol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Men with prostate cancer on active surveillance (AS) are advised to follow strict follow-up schedules and switch to definitive treatment on risk reclassification. However, some men might not adhere to these strict protocols. Objective To determine the number of noncompliers and disease reclassification rates in men not complying with the follow-up protocol of the Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study. Design, setting, and participants A total of 4547 men with low-risk prostate cancer were included and prospectively followed on AS. Men were regularly examined using prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination, and repeat biopsies, and were advised to switch to definitive treatment on disease reclassification (>cT2c, Gleason score > 3 + 3, >2 cores positive, or PSA doubling time [PSA-DT] 0-3 yr). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Rates of men not complying with follow-up visits or a recommendation to discontinue AS are reported. Biopsy outcome (Gleason ≥7 or >2 cores positive) was compared between compliers and noncompliers using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results and limitations The compliance rate for PSA visits was 91%. By contrast, the compliance rate for standard repeat biopsies decreased over time (81%, 60%, 53%, and 33% at 1, 4, 7, and 10 yr after diagnosis, respectively). Yearly repeat biopsies in men with faster rising PSA (PSA-DT 3-10 yr) was low at

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)814-821
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Urology
Volume68
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2015

Keywords

  • Active surveillance
  • Compliance
  • Disease progression
  • Prostate biopsy
  • Prostate-specific antigen
  • Prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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