Introduction: Very few population-based assessments of delirium have been performed to date. These have not assessed the implications of delirium after major surgical oncology procedures (MSOPs). We examined the temporal trends of delirium following 10 MSOPs, as well as patient and hospital delirium risk factors. Finally, we examined the effect of delirium on length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and hospital charges. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent prostatectomy, colectomy, cystectomy, mastectomy, gastrectomy, hysterectomy, nephrectomy, oophorectomy, lung resection, or pancreatectomy within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2003?2013). We yielded a weighted estimate of 3 431 632 patients. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analyses identified the determinants of postoperative delirium, as well as the effect of delirium on length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and hospital charges. Results: Between 2003 and 2013, annual delirium rate increased from 0.7 to 1.2% (+6.0%; p<0.001). Delirium rates were highest after cystectomy (predicted probability [PP] 3.1%) and pancreatectomy (PP 2.6%) and lowest after prostatectomy (PP 0.15%) and mastectomy (PP 0.13%). Advanced age (odds ratio [OR] 3.80), maleness (OR 1.38), and higher Charlson comorbidity index (OR 1.20), as well as postoperative complications represent risk factors for delirium after MSOPs. Delirium after MSOP was associated with prolonged length of stay (OR 3.00), higher mortality (OR 1.15) and increased in-hospital charges (OR 1.13). Conclusions: No contemporary population-based assessments of delirium after MSOP have been reported. According to our findings, delirium after MSOP has a profound impact on patient outcomes that ranges from prolonged length of stay to higher mortality and increased in-hospital charges.
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