Comprehensive effects of left ventricular assist device speed changes on alveolar gas exchange, sleep ventilatory pattern, and exercise performance

Anna Apostolo, Stefania Paolillo, Mauro Contini, Carlo Vignati, Vincenzo Tarzia, Jeness Campodonico, Massimo Mapelli, Massimo Massetti, Jonida Bejko, Francesca Righini, Tomaso Bottio, Niccolò Bonini, Elisabetta Salvioni, Paola Gugliandolo, Gianfranco Parati, Carolina Lombardi, Gino Gerosa, Luca Salvi, Francesco Alamanni, Piergiuseppe Agostoni

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Increasing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pump speed according to the patient's activity is a fascinating hypothesis. This study analyzed the short-term effects of LVAD speed increase on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) performance, muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy), diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and sleep quality. METHODS: We analyzed CPET, DLCO and DLNO, and sleep in 33 patients supported with the Jarvik 2000 (Jarvik Heart Inc., New York, NY). After a maximal CPET (n = 28), patients underwent 2 maximal CPETs with LVAD speed randomly set at 3 or increased from 3 to 5 during effort (n = 15). Then, at LVAD speed randomly set at 2 or 4, we performed (1) constant workload CPETs assessing O2 kinetics, cardiac output (CO), and muscle oxygenation (n = 15); (2) resting DLCO and DLNO (n = 18); and (3) nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring (n = 29). RESULTS: The progressive pump speed increase raised peak volume of oxygen consumption (12.5 ± 2.5 ml/min/kg vs 11.7 ± 2.8 ml/min/kg at speed 3; p = 0.001). During constant workload, from speed 2 to 4, CO increased (at rest: 3.18 ± 0.76 liters/min vs 3.69 ± 0.75 liters/min, p = 0.015; during exercise: 5.91 ± 1.31 liters/min vs 6.69 ± 0.99 liters/min, p = 0.014), and system efficiency (τ = 65.8 ± 15.1 seconds vs 49.9 ± 14.8 seconds, p = 0.002) and muscle oxygenation improved. At speed 4, DLCO decreased, and obstructive apneas increased despite a significant apnea/hypopnea index and a reduction of central apneas. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term LVAD speed increase improves exercise performance, CO, O2 kinetics, and muscle oxygenation. However, it deteriorates lung diffusion and increases obstructive apneas, likely due to an increase of intrathoracic fluids. Self-adjusting LVAD speed is a fascinating but possibly unsafe option, probably requiring a monitoring of intrathoracic fluids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1361-1371
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Volume37
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2018

Fingerprint

Heart-Assist Devices
Sleep
Gases
Exercise
Apnea
Exercise Test
Cardiac Output
Nitric Oxide
Workload
Muscles
Central Sleep Apnea
Lung Volume Measurements
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Carbon Monoxide
Oxygen Consumption
Myocardium
Lung

Keywords

  • cardiac output
  • CPET
  • exercise
  • lung diffusion
  • LVAD
  • muscle oxygenation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Transplantation

Cite this

@article{e0d29ca5239d4340a0d52716acc45908,
title = "Comprehensive effects of left ventricular assist device speed changes on alveolar gas exchange, sleep ventilatory pattern, and exercise performance",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Increasing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pump speed according to the patient's activity is a fascinating hypothesis. This study analyzed the short-term effects of LVAD speed increase on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) performance, muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy), diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and sleep quality. METHODS: We analyzed CPET, DLCO and DLNO, and sleep in 33 patients supported with the Jarvik 2000 (Jarvik Heart Inc., New York, NY). After a maximal CPET (n = 28), patients underwent 2 maximal CPETs with LVAD speed randomly set at 3 or increased from 3 to 5 during effort (n = 15). Then, at LVAD speed randomly set at 2 or 4, we performed (1) constant workload CPETs assessing O2 kinetics, cardiac output (CO), and muscle oxygenation (n = 15); (2) resting DLCO and DLNO (n = 18); and (3) nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring (n = 29). RESULTS: The progressive pump speed increase raised peak volume of oxygen consumption (12.5 ± 2.5 ml/min/kg vs 11.7 ± 2.8 ml/min/kg at speed 3; p = 0.001). During constant workload, from speed 2 to 4, CO increased (at rest: 3.18 ± 0.76 liters/min vs 3.69 ± 0.75 liters/min, p = 0.015; during exercise: 5.91 ± 1.31 liters/min vs 6.69 ± 0.99 liters/min, p = 0.014), and system efficiency (τ = 65.8 ± 15.1 seconds vs 49.9 ± 14.8 seconds, p = 0.002) and muscle oxygenation improved. At speed 4, DLCO decreased, and obstructive apneas increased despite a significant apnea/hypopnea index and a reduction of central apneas. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term LVAD speed increase improves exercise performance, CO, O2 kinetics, and muscle oxygenation. However, it deteriorates lung diffusion and increases obstructive apneas, likely due to an increase of intrathoracic fluids. Self-adjusting LVAD speed is a fascinating but possibly unsafe option, probably requiring a monitoring of intrathoracic fluids.",
keywords = "cardiac output, CPET, exercise, lung diffusion, LVAD, muscle oxygenation",
author = "Anna Apostolo and Stefania Paolillo and Mauro Contini and Carlo Vignati and Vincenzo Tarzia and Jeness Campodonico and Massimo Mapelli and Massimo Massetti and Jonida Bejko and Francesca Righini and Tomaso Bottio and Niccol{\`o} Bonini and Elisabetta Salvioni and Paola Gugliandolo and Gianfranco Parati and Carolina Lombardi and Gino Gerosa and Luca Salvi and Francesco Alamanni and Piergiuseppe Agostoni",
year = "2018",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.healun.2018.07.005",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "1361--1371",
journal = "Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation",
issn = "1053-2498",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comprehensive effects of left ventricular assist device speed changes on alveolar gas exchange, sleep ventilatory pattern, and exercise performance

AU - Apostolo, Anna

AU - Paolillo, Stefania

AU - Contini, Mauro

AU - Vignati, Carlo

AU - Tarzia, Vincenzo

AU - Campodonico, Jeness

AU - Mapelli, Massimo

AU - Massetti, Massimo

AU - Bejko, Jonida

AU - Righini, Francesca

AU - Bottio, Tomaso

AU - Bonini, Niccolò

AU - Salvioni, Elisabetta

AU - Gugliandolo, Paola

AU - Parati, Gianfranco

AU - Lombardi, Carolina

AU - Gerosa, Gino

AU - Salvi, Luca

AU - Alamanni, Francesco

AU - Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

PY - 2018/11/1

Y1 - 2018/11/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Increasing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pump speed according to the patient's activity is a fascinating hypothesis. This study analyzed the short-term effects of LVAD speed increase on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) performance, muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy), diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and sleep quality. METHODS: We analyzed CPET, DLCO and DLNO, and sleep in 33 patients supported with the Jarvik 2000 (Jarvik Heart Inc., New York, NY). After a maximal CPET (n = 28), patients underwent 2 maximal CPETs with LVAD speed randomly set at 3 or increased from 3 to 5 during effort (n = 15). Then, at LVAD speed randomly set at 2 or 4, we performed (1) constant workload CPETs assessing O2 kinetics, cardiac output (CO), and muscle oxygenation (n = 15); (2) resting DLCO and DLNO (n = 18); and (3) nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring (n = 29). RESULTS: The progressive pump speed increase raised peak volume of oxygen consumption (12.5 ± 2.5 ml/min/kg vs 11.7 ± 2.8 ml/min/kg at speed 3; p = 0.001). During constant workload, from speed 2 to 4, CO increased (at rest: 3.18 ± 0.76 liters/min vs 3.69 ± 0.75 liters/min, p = 0.015; during exercise: 5.91 ± 1.31 liters/min vs 6.69 ± 0.99 liters/min, p = 0.014), and system efficiency (τ = 65.8 ± 15.1 seconds vs 49.9 ± 14.8 seconds, p = 0.002) and muscle oxygenation improved. At speed 4, DLCO decreased, and obstructive apneas increased despite a significant apnea/hypopnea index and a reduction of central apneas. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term LVAD speed increase improves exercise performance, CO, O2 kinetics, and muscle oxygenation. However, it deteriorates lung diffusion and increases obstructive apneas, likely due to an increase of intrathoracic fluids. Self-adjusting LVAD speed is a fascinating but possibly unsafe option, probably requiring a monitoring of intrathoracic fluids.

AB - BACKGROUND: Increasing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pump speed according to the patient's activity is a fascinating hypothesis. This study analyzed the short-term effects of LVAD speed increase on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) performance, muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy), diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and sleep quality. METHODS: We analyzed CPET, DLCO and DLNO, and sleep in 33 patients supported with the Jarvik 2000 (Jarvik Heart Inc., New York, NY). After a maximal CPET (n = 28), patients underwent 2 maximal CPETs with LVAD speed randomly set at 3 or increased from 3 to 5 during effort (n = 15). Then, at LVAD speed randomly set at 2 or 4, we performed (1) constant workload CPETs assessing O2 kinetics, cardiac output (CO), and muscle oxygenation (n = 15); (2) resting DLCO and DLNO (n = 18); and (3) nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring (n = 29). RESULTS: The progressive pump speed increase raised peak volume of oxygen consumption (12.5 ± 2.5 ml/min/kg vs 11.7 ± 2.8 ml/min/kg at speed 3; p = 0.001). During constant workload, from speed 2 to 4, CO increased (at rest: 3.18 ± 0.76 liters/min vs 3.69 ± 0.75 liters/min, p = 0.015; during exercise: 5.91 ± 1.31 liters/min vs 6.69 ± 0.99 liters/min, p = 0.014), and system efficiency (τ = 65.8 ± 15.1 seconds vs 49.9 ± 14.8 seconds, p = 0.002) and muscle oxygenation improved. At speed 4, DLCO decreased, and obstructive apneas increased despite a significant apnea/hypopnea index and a reduction of central apneas. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term LVAD speed increase improves exercise performance, CO, O2 kinetics, and muscle oxygenation. However, it deteriorates lung diffusion and increases obstructive apneas, likely due to an increase of intrathoracic fluids. Self-adjusting LVAD speed is a fascinating but possibly unsafe option, probably requiring a monitoring of intrathoracic fluids.

KW - cardiac output

KW - CPET

KW - exercise

KW - lung diffusion

KW - LVAD

KW - muscle oxygenation

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U2 - 10.1016/j.healun.2018.07.005

DO - 10.1016/j.healun.2018.07.005

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 1361

EP - 1371

JO - Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation

JF - Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation

SN - 1053-2498

IS - 11

ER -