Computational modelling of the scoliotic spine: A literature review

Samuele L Gould, Luca Cristofolini, Giorgio Davico, Marco Viceconti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Scoliosis is a deformity of the spine that in severe cases requires surgical treatment. There is still disagreement among clinicians as to what the aim of such treatment is as well as the optimal surgical technique. Numerical models can aid clinical decision-making by estimating the outcome of a given surgical intervention. This paper provided some background information on the modelling of the healthy spine and a review of the literature on scoliotic spine models, their validation, and their application. An overview of the methods and techniques used to construct scoliotic finite element and multibody models was given as well as the boundary conditions used in the simulations. The current limitations of the models were discussed as well as how such limitations are addressed in non-scoliotic spine models. Finally, future directions for the numerical modelling of scoliosis were addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-27
Number of pages27
JournalInternational Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Issue number10
Early online dateJun 10 2021
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • finite element modelling
  • multibody modelling
  • musculoskeletal modelling
  • review
  • scoliosis
  • scoliotic spine


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