Concise Review: Cell-Based Therapies and Other Non-Traditional Approaches for Type 1 Diabetes

Remi J. Creusot, Manuela Battaglia, Maria Grazia Roncarolo, C. Garrison Fathman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The evolution of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) therapy has been marked by consecutive shifts, from insulin replacement to immunosuppressive drugs and targeted biologics (following the understanding that T1D is an autoimmune disease), and to more disease-specific or patient-oriented approaches such as antigen-specific and cell-based therapies, with a goal to provide efficacy, safety, and long-term protection. At the same time, another important paradigm shift from treatment of new onset T1D patients to prevention in high-risk individuals has taken place, based on the hypothesis that therapeutic approaches deemed sufficiently safe may show better efficacy if applied early enough to maintain endogenous β cell function, a concept supported by many preclinical studies. This new strategy has been made possible by capitalizing on a variety of biomarkers that can more reliably estimate the risk and rate of progression of the disease. More advanced ("omic"-based) biomarkers that also shed light on the underlying contributors of disease for each individual will be helpful to guide the choice of the most appropriate therapies, or combinations thereof. In this review, we present current efforts to stratify patients according to biomarkers and current alternatives to conventional drug-based therapies for T1D, with a special emphasis on cell-based therapies, their status in the clinic and potential for treatment and/or prevention.

Original languageEnglish
JournalStem Cells
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2016

Keywords

  • Antigen-specific
  • Autoimmunity
  • Cell therapy
  • Immunoregulation
  • Prevention
  • T cells
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Molecular Medicine

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