Pathogenesis of endometriosis is still unclear and a role of both innate and adaptive immune system has been postulated. Some recent findings have revealed an increased risk to have concomitant autoimmune disease in women with endometriosis, but no study so far has investigated whether this association could affect endometriosis severity and stage. We retrospectively reviewed medical patients’ notes of women with a confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis who referred to our endometriosis outpatient clinic between January 2015 and December 2019. Cases (endometriosis and an autoimmune disease) were matched in a 1:3 ratio by age and study period with controls (endometriosis without history of autoimmunity). At univariate logistic analysis, concomitant autoimmunity (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.64–4.21, p < 0.001) and the number of laparoscopic procedures performed (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.45–5.43, p = 0.002) emerged as factors significantly associated with the likelihood of stage IV endometriosis. In the multivariate logistic regression model, concomitant autoimmunity remained a significant predictor of stage IV endometriosis (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.57–4.10, p = 0.004), whereas the association between the number of laparoscopic procedures performed and stage IV endometriosis was found to be of borderline-significance (OR 2.70, 95% 1.37–5.30, p = 0.050). Our findings suggest that endometriosis is more severe in patients who are also affected by autoimmune disturbances after controlling for relevant confounders.
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