The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieve complete remission (CR) after induction/consolidation chemotherapy. The optimal post-remission treatment is still a matter of debate. However, the intensification of post-remission treatment, including high-dose chemotherapy followed by infusion of autologous or allogeneic stem cells, has progressively increased, considering the high risk of relapse without any further post-remission therapy. The most effective conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains controversial. The combination of busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BU-Cy) is the most used conditioning treatment as its anti-leukemic activity is well established.
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