Confirmatory multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging at recruitment confers prolonged stay in active surveillance and decreases the rate of upgrading at follow-up

Stefano Luzzago, Michele Catellani, Ettore Di Trapani, Gabriele Cozzi, Francesco A. Mistretta, Roberto Bianchi, Paola Pricolo, Andrea Conti, Eleonora Ancona, Nicolò Piacentini, Sarah Alessi, Giuseppe Renne, Matteo Ferro, Deliu Victor Matei, Gennaro Musi, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giuseppe Petralia, Ottavio de Cobelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: To understand the value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and targeted biopsies at recruitment on active surveillance (AS) outcomes. Materials and methods: This retrospective single-center study enrolled two cohorts of 206 and 310 patients in AS. The latter group was submitted to mpMRI and targeted biopsies at recruitment. Kaplan–meier curves quantified progression-free survival (PFS) and Bioptic-PFS (B-PFS: no upgrading or >3 positive cores) in the two cohorts. Cox-regression analyses tested independent predictors of PFS and B-PFS. In patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP) after AS, significant cancer (csPCa) was defined as: GS ≥ 4 + 3 and/or pT ≥ 3a and/or pN+. Logistic-regression analyses predicted csPCa at RP. Results and limitations: Median time follow-up and median time of persistence in AS were 46 (24–70) and 36 (23–58) months, respectively. Patients submitted to mpMRI at AS begin, showed greater PFS at 1- (98% vs. 91%), 3- (80% vs. 57%), and 5-years (70% vs. 35%) follow-up, respectively (all p < 0.01). At Cox-regression analysis only confirmatory mpMRI± targeted biopsy (HR: 0.3; 95% CI 0.2–0.5; p < 0.01) at AS begin was an independent predictor of PFS. Globally, 50 (16%) vs. 128 (62%) and 26 (8.5%) vs. 64 (31%) [all p < 0.01] men in the two groups experienced any-cause and bioptic AS discontinuation, respectively. Patients submitted to confirmatory mpMRI experienced greater 1-(98% vs. 93%), 3-(90% vs. 75%), and 5-years (83% vs. 56%) B-PFS, respectively (all p < 0.01). At Cox-regression analysis, mpMRI±-targeted biopsy at AS begin was associated with B-PFS (HR: 0.3; 95% CI 0.2–0.6; p < 0.01). No differences were recorded in csPCa rates between the two groups (22% vs. 28%; p = 0.47). Limitations of the study are the single-center retrospective nature and the absence of long-term follow-up. Conclusions: Confirmatory mpMRI±-targeted biopsies are associated with higher PFS and B-PFS during AS. However, a non-negligible percentage of patients experience csPCa after switching to active treatment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalProstate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology
  • Cancer Research


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