Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Patterns of fetal brain damage

L. Gabrielli, M. P. Bonasoni, D. Santini, G. Piccirilli, A. Chiereghin, E. Petrisli, R. Dolcetti, B. Guerra, M. Piccioli, M. Lanari, M. P. Landini, T. Lazzarotto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent infectious agent causing neurological dysfunction in the developing brain. This study analysed the different patterns of tissue damage, particularly in the brain, of fetuses with documented CMV infection. We studied 45 fetuses at 20-21 weeks of gestation with congenital CMV infection documented by invasive positive prenatal diagnosis. At the time of amniocentesis, abnormal ultrasound findings had been recorded for 13 of the 45 fetuses (29%). Histological and immunohistochemical characterization was performed on the placenta, brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. The different degrees of brain damage were correlated with tissue viral load, inflammatory response, placental functionality, and extramedullary haematopoiesis. Even though a high CMV load was detected in all amniotic fluids, brain infection occurred in only 62% of the fetuses and with different degrees of severity. Tissues with a low viral load showed a globally weak inflammatory response, and fetuses had only mild brain damage, whereas tissues with a high CMV load showed prominent infiltration of the activated cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes responsible for immune-mediated damage. Furthermore, severe placental infection was associated with diffuse villitis and necrosis, consistent with functional impairment and possible consequent hypoxic cerebral damage. Brain injury induced by CMV congenital infection may be the result of uncontrolled viral replication, immune-mediated damage by cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and, in the presence of placental insufficiency, fetal hypoxia.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
Volume18
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012

Fingerprint

Cytomegalovirus Infections
Fetus
Brain
Cytomegalovirus
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes
Viral Load
Fetal Hypoxia
Extramedullary Hematopoiesis
Placental Insufficiency
Amniocentesis
Amniotic Fluid
Infection
Prenatal Diagnosis
Brain Injuries
Placenta
Pancreas
Necrosis
Kidney
Pregnancy
Lung

Keywords

  • Brain damage
  • Congenital infection
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Fetal hypoxia
  • Inflammatory response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Gabrielli, L., Bonasoni, M. P., Santini, D., Piccirilli, G., Chiereghin, A., Petrisli, E., ... Lazzarotto, T. (2012). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Patterns of fetal brain damage. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 18(10). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03983.x

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection : Patterns of fetal brain damage. / Gabrielli, L.; Bonasoni, M. P.; Santini, D.; Piccirilli, G.; Chiereghin, A.; Petrisli, E.; Dolcetti, R.; Guerra, B.; Piccioli, M.; Lanari, M.; Landini, M. P.; Lazzarotto, T.

In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol. 18, No. 10, 10.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gabrielli, L, Bonasoni, MP, Santini, D, Piccirilli, G, Chiereghin, A, Petrisli, E, Dolcetti, R, Guerra, B, Piccioli, M, Lanari, M, Landini, MP & Lazzarotto, T 2012, 'Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Patterns of fetal brain damage', Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 18, no. 10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03983.x
Gabrielli L, Bonasoni MP, Santini D, Piccirilli G, Chiereghin A, Petrisli E et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Patterns of fetal brain damage. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2012 Oct;18(10). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03983.x
Gabrielli, L. ; Bonasoni, M. P. ; Santini, D. ; Piccirilli, G. ; Chiereghin, A. ; Petrisli, E. ; Dolcetti, R. ; Guerra, B. ; Piccioli, M. ; Lanari, M. ; Landini, M. P. ; Lazzarotto, T. / Congenital cytomegalovirus infection : Patterns of fetal brain damage. In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2012 ; Vol. 18, No. 10.
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