a. All patients with GO should (Fig. 1): Be referred to specialist centers; Be encouraged to quit smoking; Receive prompt treatment in order to restore and maintain euthyroidism. b. Patients with sight-threatening GO should be treated with i.v. GCs as the first-line treatment; if the response is poor after 1-2 weeks, they should be submitted to urgent surgical decompression. c. The treatment of choice for moderate-to-severe GO is i.v. GCs (with or without OR) if the orbitopathy is active; surgery (orbital decompression, squint surgery, and/or eyelid surgery in this order) should be considered if the orbitopathy is inactive. d. In patients with mild GO, local measures and an expectant strategy are sufficient in most cases, but treatment may be justified if QoL is affected significantly.
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