Conservative Surgical Therapy for Leydig Cell Tumor

Luca Carmignani, Renzo Colombo, Franco Gadda, Giacomo Galasso, Andrea Lania, Juan Palou, Ferran Algaba, Humberto Villavicencio, Giovanni Maria Colpi, Ottavio Decobelli, Roberto Salvioni, Giorgio Pizzocaro, Patrizio Rigatti, Francesco Rocco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: We performed a long-term evaluation of conservative surgical treatment of benign Leydig cell tumor. Materials and Methods: A multicenter retrospective clinical study was performed at 6 European centers. Case files of all patients diagnosed with Leydig cell tumor and treated with conservative surgery were examined. Patients underwent physical examination, hormone and tumor marker assays, scrotal and abdominal ultrasound, chest x-ray, and an endocrinological examination. Results: From 1987 to 2006, 22 patients with Leydig cell tumor underwent conservative surgery. Mean patient age was 35 years (range 5 to 61). Mean followup was 47 months (range 1 to 230). No local recurrence or metastasis was observed. Patients presented with a palpable testicular nodule (3 patients, 13.7%) or a nodule diagnosed by ultrasound (15 patients, 68.2%), gynecomastia (2 patients, 9.1%), precocious pseudopuberty (1 patient, 4.5%) or scrotal pain (1 patient, 4.5%). Three patients were monorchid after contralateral orchiectomy for inguinal hernia repair (1 patient, 28 years before surgery) and nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (2 patients, 1 month and 6 years before surgery). Diagnosis after frozen section examination was Leydig cell tumor in 20 of 22 cases (91.0%). Mean histological size of the nodule was 1.11 cm (range 0.5 to 2.5). Preoperative FSH and LH levels were high in 4 patients. Tumor markers were normal before and after surgery. Followup was conducted for all patients every 3 to 6 months with physical examination, tumor markers, scrotal and abdominal ultrasound, chest x-ray. Six patients (27.3%) underwent abdominal computerized tomography. Conclusions: When diagnosed early Leydig cell tumors present a favorable followup. In select cases with motivated patients, conservative surgery proved to be a feasible and safe choice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-511
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2007


  • early diagnosis
  • Leydig cell tumor
  • prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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