Purpose: To evaluate the balance between existing evidence and expert opinions on the safety and efficacy of new technological improvements in lithotripsy techniques for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Methods: A scoping review approach was applied to search literature in Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science. Consensus by key opinion leaders was reached at a 2-day meeting entitled “Consultation on Kidney Stones: Aspects of Intracorporeal Lithotripsy” held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2019. Results: New-generation dual-mode single-probe lithotripsy devices have shown favourable results compared with use of ballistic or ultrasonic lithotripters only. However, ballistic and ultrasonic lithotripters are also highly effective and safe and have been the backbone of PCNL for many years. Compared with standard PCNL, it seems that mini PCNL is associated with fewer bleeding complications and shorter hospital admissions, but also with longer operating room (OR) time and higher intrarenal pressure. Use of laser lithotripsy combined with suction in mini PCNL is a promising alternative that may improve such PCNL by shortening OR times. Furthermore, supine PCNL is a good alternative, especially in cases with complex renal stones and large proximal ureteric stones; in addition, it facilitates endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS). Conclusion: Recent technological improvements in PCNL techniques are promising, but there is a lack of high-level evidence on safety and efficacy. Different techniques suit different types of stones and patients. The evolution of diverse methods has given urologists the possibility of a personalized stone approach, in other words, the right approach for the right patient.
- Kidney calculi
ASJC Scopus subject areas