Contemporary Age-adjusted Incidence and Mortality Rates of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Analysis According to Gender, Race, Stage, Grade, and Histology

Carlotta Palumbo, Angela Pecoraro, Sophie Knipper, Giuseppe Rosiello, Stefano Luzzago, Marina Deuker, Zhe Tian, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Claudio Simeone, Alberto Briganti, Fred Saad, Alfredo Berruti, Alessandro Antonelli, Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Recent data showed that North America has the highest incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) worldwide. Objective: To assess contemporary gender-, race-, and stage-specific incidence; survival rates; and trends of RCC patients in the USA. Design, setting, and participants: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2001–2016), all patients aged ≥18 yr with histologically confirmed renal parenchymal tumors were included. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Age-adjusted incidence rates and 5-yr cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were estimated. Temporal trends were calculated through Joinpoint regression analyses to describe the average annual percent change (AAPC). Results and limitations: The age-adjusted incidence rate of RCC was 11.3/100 000 person years (AAPC + 2.0%, p < 0.001). Five-year CSS rates increased from 78.4% to 84.5% (AAPC +0.8%, p < 0.001). Male incidence was double that of females (15.5 and 7.7, respectively). CSS marginally favored females (84.5% vs 82.0%), but improved equally in both genders (both AAPC +0.8%). The highest incidence (14.1/100 000 person years, AAPC +2.8%) and lowest survival (80.1%) were recorded in non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native populations. T1aN0M0 had the highest incidence rates (4.6/100 000 person years), the highest increase over time (AAPC +3.6%), and the highest CSS (97.6%) of all stages. Limitations include retrospective nature and lack of information on risk factors. Conclusions: The incidence of RCC increased significantly from 2001 to 2016, and 5-yr CSS after RCC improved. This was mainly due to T1aN0M0 tumors that showed the highest increase in the incidence and highest CSS. Unfavorable outcomes in specific ethnic groups warrant further research. Patient summary: We examined contemporary incidence and cancer-specific survival rates of kidney cancer. Males had double the incidence rates of females, but lower survival. Natives showed the highest incidence rates and the lowest survival rates. Small renal masses showed the highest incidence and survival rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)644-652
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Urology Focus
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Epidemiology
  • Incidence
  • Kidney cancer
  • Mortality
  • Renal cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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