BACKGROUND: We tested contemporary surveillance and active treatment (AT) that included chemotherapy (CHT) and radiotherapy (RT) rates for stage I testicular seminoma patients, as well as cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) rates.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1988-2015) we identified 11,206 stage I testicular seminoma patients. Surveillance versus CHT versus RT use rates were investigated using estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) analyses. After propensity score (PS) matching, cumulative incidence plots and multivariable competing risks regression models (MCRRMs) tested for CSM and OCM.
RESULTS: Of all 11,206 patients, 4434 (40%), 918 (8%), and 5854 (52%), respectively, underwent surveillance, CHT, or RT after initial orchiectomy. Surveillance (EAPC: 7.5%; P < .001) and CHT (EAPC: 13.5%; P < .001) rates increased over time, whereas RT rates decreased (EAPC: -3.8%; P < .001). After PS matching, in MCRRMs surveillance was an independent predictor of CSM, relative to AT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.59; P = .04). Conversely, surveillance versus AT did not affect OCM (HR, 1.52; P = .051). All other analyses that focused on CSM and OCM, namely surveillance versus RT, surveillance versus CHT, and RT versus CHT resulted in nonsignificant differences (all P > .5).
CONCLUSION: Surveillance and CHT use in stage I testicular seminoma rates increased, whereas RT rate decreased over time. A protective effect of AT defined as either RT or CHT was identified on CSM, relative to surveillance. This protective effect was not described for OCM. No differences in survival were recorded, when individual management strategies (surveillance vs. RT vs. CHT) were compared with each other.