Contemporary National Assessment of Robot-Assisted Surgery Rates and Total Hospital Charges for Major Surgical Uro-Oncological Procedures in the United States

Elio Mazzone, Francesco A. Mistretta, Sophie Knipper, Zhe Tian, Alessandro Larcher, Hugues Widmer, Kevin Zorn, Umberto Capitanio, Markus Graefen, Francesco Montorsi, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Fred Saad, Alberto Briganti, Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The role of robot assistance is increasingly gaining importance among all major surgical uro-oncological procedures (MSUPs). However, contemporary analyses showed that total hospital charges (THCGs) related to robot-assisted procedures exceed those of open procedures. Based on increasing familiarity with robot-assisted surgery, we postulated that THCGs may have decreased over the past half-decade. Thus, we tested contemporary trends and THCGs related to robot-assisted vs nonrobot-assisted MSUPs. Materials and Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2009-2015), we identified patients who underwent robot-assisted vs nonrobot-assisted (open or laparoscopic) MSUPs, which included radical prostatectomy (RP), radical nephrectomy (RN), partial nephrectomy (PN), and radical cystectomy (RC). Rates of robot-assisted MSUPs were evaluated using estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) analyses. The t-test was used to examine statistically significant differences between mean THCGs according to either robot-assisted or nonrobot-assisted approach. Finally, linear regression analyses were tested for annual variation in the mean THCGs. Results: Of 128,367 MSUPs, 47.7% were robot-assisted. Overall, robot-assisted surgery rates among MSUPs increased from 40.3% to 57.6% (EAPC: +6.3%, p < 0.001) between 2009 and 2015. The mean THCGs for robot-assisted RP, RN, PN, and RC were $13,799, $18,789, $16,574, and $33,575, respectively. The observed mean THCGs differences between robot-assisted and nonrobot-assisted MSUPs were +$1594, +$1592, and +$1829 for RP, RN, and RC, respectively (all p < 0.05). Conversely, no statistically significant difference in the mean THCGs was reported between robot-assisted and nonrobot-assisted PN (+$367, p > 0.05). Finally, the annual observed mean THCGs linearly decreased for all robot-assisted MSUPs during the study period. Conclusions: Rates of robot-assisted MSUPs exponentially increased between 2009 and 2015. Although the mean THCGs decreased in a significant manner during the study period for all MSUPs, THCGs of robot-assisted RP, RN, and RC still exceed those of their respective nonrobot-assisted counterparts. Conversely, no differences in the mean THCGs were reported between robot-assisted vs nonrobot-assisted PN.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-447
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019


  • nationwide inpatients sample
  • nephrectomy
  • radical cystectomy
  • radical prostatectomy
  • robot-assisted surgery
  • total hospital charges

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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