Acute renal failure (ARF) requiring hemodialysis after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is a serious complication with poor prognosis. Hemodialysis-induced hypotension may have deleterious cardiovascular effects, especially in high-risk patients. Ultrafiltrate removal and simultaneous fluid replacement with a solution similar to plasma for high-volume controlled hydration can be obtained with hemodynamic stability by continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). We prospectively assessed the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous CVVH (Y-shaped double-lumen catheter, circuit originating from and terminating in the femoral vein) in 33 consecutive patients (23 men and 10 women; mean age, 69 ± 9 years) who, after PCI, developed oligo-anuric ARF, associated in 20 of them with congestive heart failure. All patients received a concomitant infusion of furosemide (500-1,000 mg/day) and dopamine (2 μg/kg/min). During CVVH, the average fluid volume replacement and body fluid net reduction were 1,000 ± 247 and 75 ± 48 ml/hr, respectively. Treatment with CVVH continued for 4.7 ± 2.7 days and corrected fluid overload in all cases. No patient experienced systemic hypotension or hypovolemia. Diuresis recovered in 32 (97%) patients, who showed a parallel improvement of renal function parameters. One patient required chronic dialysis. In-hospital and 1-year mortality was 9.1% and 27.3%, respectively. In conclusion, our data indicate that CVVH is a safe and effective therapy of radiocontrast-induced ARF following PCI. It temporarily replaces renal function without deleterious cardiovascular effects, allowing the kidney to recover from the nephrotoxic injury. However, despite promising early results, large randomized trials are required to define the role of CVVH in ARF after PCI.
- Acute renal failure
- Percutaneous coronary interventions
- Radiocontrast nephropathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging