A fundamental property of cellular processes is to maintain homeostasis despite varying internal and external conditions. Within the membrane transport apparatus, variations in membrane fluxes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex are balanced by opposite fluxes from the Golgi to the ER to maintain homeostasis between the two organelles. Here we describe a molecular device that balances transport fluxes by integrating transduction cascades with the transport machinery. Specifically, ER-to-Golgi transport activates the KDEL receptor at the Golgi, which triggers a cascade that involves Gs and adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase isoforms and then PKA activation and results in the phosphorylation of transport machinery proteins. This induces retrograde traffic to the ER and balances transport fluxes between the ER and Golgi. Moreover, the KDEL receptor activates CREB1 and other transcription factors that upregulate transport-related genes. Thus, a Golgi-based control system maintains transport homeostasis through both signaling and transcriptional networks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology