Controversial Impact of Sirtuins in Chronic Non-Transmissible Diseases and Rehabilitation Medicine

Alessia Mongelli, Carlo Gaetano

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

A large body of evidence reports about the positive effects of physical activity in pathophysiological conditions associated with aging. Physical exercise, alone or in combination with other medical therapies, unquestionably causes reduction of symptoms in chronic non-transmissible diseases often leading to significant amelioration or complete healing. The molecular basis of this exciting outcome-however, remain largely obscure. Epigenetics, exploring at the interface between environmental signals and the remodeling of chromatin structure, promises to shed light on this intriguing matter possibly contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we shall focalize on the role of sirtuins (Sirts) a class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), which function has been frequently associated, often with a controversial role, to the pathogenesis of aging-associated pathophysiological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular, muscular, neurodegenerative, bones and respiratory diseases. Numerous studies, in fact, demonstrate that Sirt-dependent pathways are activated upon physical and cognitive exercises linking mitochondrial function, DNA structure remodeling and gene expression regulation to designed medical therapies leading to tangible beneficial outcomes. However, in similar conditions, other studies assign to sirtuins a negative pathophysiological role. In spite of this controversial effect, it is doubtless that studying sirtuins in chronic diseases might lead to an unprecedented improvement of life quality in the elderly.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume19
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 9 2018

Fingerprint

Sirtuins
medicine
Patient rehabilitation
Medicine
Gene expression regulation
Rehabilitation
Aging of materials
Exercise
physical exercise
Pulmonary diseases
Bone
DNA
Histone Deacetylases
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
Bone Diseases
gene expression regulation
Gene Expression Regulation
therapy
Mitochondrial DNA
Epigenomics

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Cardiac Rehabilitation
  • Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  • DNA Methylation
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Exercise
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Histone Deacetylases/genetics
  • Histones/metabolism
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms/etiology
  • Rehabilitation/methods
  • Sirtuins/genetics

Cite this

Controversial Impact of Sirtuins in Chronic Non-Transmissible Diseases and Rehabilitation Medicine. / Mongelli, Alessia; Gaetano, Carlo.

In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 10, 09.10.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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