Context Vitamin D is classically recognized as a regulator of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Recent advances in the measurement of vitamin D metabolites, diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency, and clinical observations have led to an appreciation that along with its role in skeletal metabolism, vitamin D may well have an important role in nonclassical settings. Measurement of the circulating form of vitamin D that best describes total body stores, namely 25-hydroxyvitamin D, can be unreliable despite many sophisticated methodologies that have been proposed and implemented. Likewise, evidence from clinical studies showing a beneficial role of vitamin D in different disease states has been controversial and at times speculative. Moreover, the target concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to address a number of putative links between vitamin D inadequacy and nonskeletal diseases are further areas of uncertainty. Setting To address these issues, an international conference on "Controversies in Vitamin D" was held in Pisa, Italy, in June 2017. Three main topics were addressed: (i) vitamin D assays and the definition of hypovitaminosis D; (ii) skeletal and extraskeletal effects of vitamin D; (iii) therapeutics of vitamin D. Results This report provides a summary of the deliberations of the expert panels of the conference. Conclusions Despite great advances in our appreciation of vitamin D metabolism, measurements, biological actions on classical and nonclassical tissues, and therapeutics, all of which this report summarizes, much more work remains to be done so that our knowledge base can become even more secure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical