Objectives: To determine the optimal initial ventilation mode in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a life-threatening anomaly with significant mortality and morbidity. The maldeveloped lungs have a high susceptibility for oxygen and ventilation damage resulting in a high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and chronic respiratory morbidity. Methods: An international, multicenter study (NTR 1310), the VICI-trial was performed in prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia infants (n = 171) born between November 2008 and December 2013, who were randomized for initial ventilation strategy. Results: Ninety-one (53.2%) patients initially received conventional mechanical ventilation and 80 (46.8%) high-frequency oscillation. Forty-one patients (45.1%) randomized to conventional mechanical ventilation died/had BPD compared with 43 patients (53.8%) in the high-frequency oscillation group. An odds ratio of 0.62 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.25-1.55] (P = 0.31) for death/BPD for conventional mechanical ventilation vs highfrequency oscillation was demonstrated, after adjustment for center, head-lung ratio, side of the defect, and liver position. Patients initially ventilated by conventional mechanical ventilation were ventilated for fewer days (P = 0.03), less often needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (P = 0.007), inhaled nitric oxide (P=0.045), sildenafil (P=0.004), had a shorter duration of vasoactive drugs (P = 0.02), and less often failed treatment (P = 0.01) as compared with infants initially ventilated by high-frequency oscillation. Conclusions: Our results show no statistically significant difference in the combined outcome of mortality or BPD between the 2 ventilation groups in prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia infants. Other outcomes, including shorter ventilation time and lesser need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, favored conventional ventilation.
- Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
- Conventional mechanical ventilation
- High-frequency oscillation
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