BACKGROUND: We conducted a retrospective survey within the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry to assess the outcomes of cord blood transplantation (CBT) in secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML).
METHODS: Inclusion criteria consisted of ≥ 18 years of age, sAML, first CBT between 2002 and 2016, and either first complete remission (CR) or active disease at CBT.
RESULTS: One hundred forty six patients met the study inclusion criteria. Status at transplantation was first CR (n=97), primary refractory sAML (n=30) or relapsed (n=19) sAML. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved in 118 patients while the remaining 25 patients (17%) failed to engraft. This include 13% of patients transplanted in first CR versus 30% of those transplanted with active disease (P=0.008)). Two-year incidences of relapse were 25% in first CR patients versus 36% in those with advanced disease (P=0.06) while 2-year incidences of nonrelapse mortality were 35% and 49% (P=0.03), respectively. At 2-year overall survival, leukemia-free survival and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free relapse free survival were 42% versus 19% (P<0.001), 40% versus 16% (P<0.001), and 26% versus 12% (P=0.002) in first CR patients versus those with advanced disease, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We report here the first study of CBT in a large cohort of sAML patients. Main observation was that CBT rescued approximately 40% of patients with sAML in first CR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.