BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Immuno-oncology therapies represent a new treatment opportunity for patients affected by metastatic melanoma. The purpose of this study was to estimate the costs of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) associated with the new anti-PD1 immuno-oncology therapies, with the anti-CTLA-4 immuno-oncology therapy and with the combined therapy (CTLA4 + anti-PD1) in patients affected by metastatic melanoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A probabilistic cost-of-illness (COI) model was developed to estimate the management costs of grade ≥ 3 adverse events associated with the new anti-PD1 therapies (pembrolizumab and nivolumab), the anti-CTLA-4 therapy (ipilimumab) and the combined therapy CTLA4 + anti-PD1 (nivolumab + ipilimumab) for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma from the National Health Service (NHS) perspective in Italy. Identification of the epidemiological and cost parameters was carried out through a systematic literature review (SLR). Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to account for uncertainty and variation in the model results.
RESULTS: The model estimated a cost associated with the management of grade ≥ 3 immune-related adverse events in patients with metastatic melanoma equal to €176.2 (95% CI 63.5-335.0) for anti-CTLA-4 therapy, €48.6 (95% CI 40.1-58.5) for the new anti-PDI therapies and €276.8 (95% CI 240.4-316.2) for the combined therapy. Among the innovative therapies for the considered metastatic melanoma, the combined therapy was the most expensive innovative treatment in terms of event management of immune-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events.
CONCLUSION: This study may represent a useful tool to understand the economic burden associated with the management of irAEs associated with patients affected by metastatic melanoma.
- Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage
- Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage
- CTLA-4 Antigen/administration & dosage
- Costs and Cost Analysis/methods
- Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/economics
- Ipilimumab/administration & dosage
- Melanoma/drug therapy
- Nivolumab/administration & dosage
- Therapies, Investigational/adverse effects