COVID-19: A review on diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

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Abstract

Coronavirus 2 (CoV) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV2) is causing a highly infectious pandemic pneumonia. Coronaviruses are positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect several animal species, causing symptoms that range from those similar to the common cold to severe respiratory syndrome. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the SARS-CoV2 functional receptor. Measures are currently undertaken worldwide to control the infection to avoid disruption of the social and economic equilibrium, especially in countries with poor healthcare resources. In a guarded optimistic view, we hope that the undertaken preventive and treatment measures will at least contribute to contain viral diffusion, attenuate activity, or even eliminate SARS-CoV2. In this review, we discuss emerging perspectives for prevention/treatment of COVID-19 infection. In addition to vaccines under development, passive immunization is an open opportunity since patients develop neutralizing antibodies. A full spectrum of potential drugs for COVID-19 infections could in turn affect virus binding or enzymatic activities involved in viral replication and transcription. Furthermore, clinical trials are currently evaluating the safety and efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as tocilizumab. Bioinformatics may allow characterization of specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses; thus, CoV2 T cells’ frequency can be correlated with the disease severity and outcome. Combinatorial antibody phage display may be empowered to identify the immune repertoire of CoV2-specific neutralizing antibodies. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalInt. J. Mol. Sci.
Volume21
Issue number14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Immune system
  • Outbreak
  • Prevention
  • SARS-CoV2 infection
  • Treatment
  • alanine aminotransferase
  • alpha2b interferon plus ribavirin
  • angiotensin converting enzyme 2
  • arbidol
  • aspartate aminotransferase
  • C reactive protein
  • cobicistat
  • D dimer
  • darunavir
  • immunoglobulin G
  • lactate dehydrogenase
  • lamivudine
  • lopinavir
  • lopinavir plus ritonavir
  • low molecular weight heparin
  • neutralizing antibody
  • oseltamivir
  • remdesivir
  • RNA directed RNA polymerase
  • sialidase inhibitor
  • teicoplanin
  • tocilizumab
  • umifenovir
  • antiinflammatory agent
  • antivirus agent
  • coronavirus spike glycoprotein
  • dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase
  • spike protein, SARS-CoV-2
  • virus antibody
  • adult respiratory distress syndrome
  • antibody response
  • CD4+ T lymphocyte
  • CD8+ T lymphocyte
  • chemiluminescence immunoassay
  • computer assisted tomography
  • convalescence
  • coronavirus disease 2019
  • cytokine release syndrome
  • cytokine storm
  • disseminated intravascular clotting
  • enzyme activity
  • enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  • human
  • immune response
  • immunoassay
  • immunotherapy
  • leukocytosis
  • loop mediated isothermal amplification
  • lymphocytopenia
  • neutrophilia
  • nonhuman
  • passive immunization
  • prophylaxis
  • prothrombin time
  • real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
  • Review
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
  • virus attachment
  • virus load
  • virus replication
  • virus transcription
  • A-549 cell line
  • animal
  • Betacoronavirus
  • cell line
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Coronavirus infection
  • drug effect
  • immunology
  • lymphocyte count
  • metabolism
  • pandemic
  • procedures
  • Vero cell line
  • virus pneumonia
  • A549 Cells
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Antiviral Agents
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Cell Line
  • Coronavirus Infections
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Passive
  • Lymphocyte Count
  • Pandemics
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • Pneumonia, Viral
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
  • Vero Cells

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