COVID-19 in Chronic Kidney Disease: The Impact of Old and Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Manuel Alfredo Podestà, Federica Valli, Andrea Galassi, Matthias A. Cassia, Paola Ciceri, Lucia Barbieri, Stefano Carugo, Mario Cozzolino

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cardiovascular disease is a frequent complication and the most common cause of death in patients with CKD. Despite landmark medical advancements, mortality due to cardiovascular disease is still 20 times higher in CKD patients than in the general population, which is mainly due to the high prevalence of risk factors in this group. Indeed, in addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, CKD patients are exposed to nontraditional ones, which include metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory alterations. The global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has brought novel challenges for both cardiologists and nephrologists alike. Emerging evidence indicates that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and that several aspects of the disease may synergize with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors in CKD patients. A better understanding of these mechanisms is pivotal for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular events in this context, and we believe that additional clinical and experimental studies are needed to improve cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients with COVID-19. In this review, we provide a summary of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in CKD patients, discussing their interaction with SARS-CoV-2 infection and focusing on CO-VID-19-related cardiovascular complications that may severely affect short- and long-term outcomes in this high-risk population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)740-749
JournalBlood Purification
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Coronavirus disease 2019
  • Dialysis
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Nephrology


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