Cyclooxygenases catalyze the initial, rate-limiting steps of prostaglandin synthesis from arachidonic acid. Two isoforms of this enzyme exist in mammalian and avian species: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is constitutively expressed and is the major isoform of gastrointestinal tissue. COX-2 is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli. COX-2 has been implicated in carcinogenesis of several neoplasms. Furthermore, COX-2 over-expression has been noted in many solid tumours and has been correlated with a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, mesothelioma and gastric cancer. In this review, the most recent findings on the mechanisms by which COX-2 promote tumorigenesis are discussed, with particular emphasis on the studies involving spontaneous canine neoplasms.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Histology and Histopathology|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2005|
- Canine tumors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology