Cranial movement disorders: Clinical features, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment

Giovanni Fabbrini, Giovanni Defazio, Carlo Colosimo, Philip D. Thompson, Alfredo Berardelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cranial movement disorders are a common neurological problem. These disorders can be limited to the cranial muscles alone or manifest as part of a more generalized movement disorder. Cranial movement disorders can originate from the highest (motor cortex) to the lowest (cranial nerve and muscle) levels of the motor system. Owing to the lack of diagnostic tests and biomarkers for these disorders, their differential diagnosis can be difficult even for the experienced neurologist. Advances have, however, been made in the identification and treatment of these conditions, and most can be managed effectively with appropriate knowledge of the diagnostic signs and effective treatments. Here, we review the clinical features, pathophysiologies and therapies of the main movement disorders that affect the face, jaw, tongue and palate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-105
Number of pages13
JournalNature clinical practice. Neurology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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