CRASH3: Cosmological radiative transfer through metals

L. Graziani, A. Maselli, B. Ciardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Here we introduce CRASH3, the latest release of the 3D radiative transfer code CRASH. In its current implementation, CRASH3 integrates into the reference algorithm the code CLOUDY to evaluate the ionization states of metals, self-consistently with the radiative transfer through H and He. The feedback of the heavy elements on the calculation of the gas temperature is also taken into account, making CRASH3 the first 3D code for cosmological applications which treats self-consistently the radiative transfer through an inhomogeneous distribution of metalenriched gas with an arbitrary number of point sources and/or a background radiation. The code has been tested in idealized configurations, as well as in a more realistic case of multiple sources embedded in a polluted cosmic web. Through these validation tests, the new method has been proven to be numerically stable and convergent. We have studied the dependence of the results on a number of physical quantities such as the source characteristics (spectral range and shape, intensity), the metal composition, the gas number density and metallicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)722-740
Number of pages19
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Cosmology: Theory
  • Intergalactic medium
  • Radiative transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics


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