CRF Provokes the Release of Norepinephrine by Hemocytes of Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia): Further Evidence in Favor of the Evolutionary Hypothesis of the "Mobile Immune-Brain"

E. Ottaviani, E. Caselgrandi, A. Franchini, C. Franceschi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The concentration of biogenic amines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) was determined by HPLC in serum and hemocytes of the mollusc Viviparus ater following in vitro incubation of the hemolymph with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) for different periods of time. CRF provoked the release of norepinephrine from hemocytes into the serum, the maximum level being observed after 15 min. incubation. Moreover, immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase, i.e., the enzymes involved in biogenic amine biosynthesis, have been demonstrated in hemocytes. These findings show that in invertebrates an ancestral type of stress response, similar to that performed by mammalian hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, occurs in phagocytic hemocytes, a cell type capable of both fundamental immune and neuroendocrine responses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)446-452
Number of pages7
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 28 1993


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry

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