Cross-protection against drifted influenza viruses: Options offered by adjuvanted and intradermal vaccines

Andrea Orsi, Filippo Ansaldi, Daniela De Florentiis, Antonella Ceravolo, Valentina Parodi, Paola Canepa, Martina Coppelli, Giancarlo Icardi, Paolo Durando

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Antigenic drift, the evolutionary mechanism of influenza viruses, results in an increased susceptibility of vaccinated subjects against circulating viruses. New vaccines able to grant a broader and cross-reactive immune response against drifted influenza variants are needed. Several strategies were explored to enhance the immunogenicity of plain vaccines: adjuvants, carriers and intradermal administration of influenza vaccine emerge as promising options. To evaluate the ability of a MF59™-Adjuvanted and intradermal influenza vaccine to elicit an effective antibody response against circulating viruses presenting antigenic patterns different from those of the vaccine strains, we compared antibody responses elicited by "implemented" vaccines and conventional intramuscular trivalent inactivated vaccines against heterologous circulating influenza A viruses. Different studies, simulating different epidemiological pictures produced by the natural antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, highlighted the superior cross-reactivity of the antibodies elicited by MF59™ and intradermal vaccines, compared with subunit or split vaccines against heterologous viruses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)582-590
Number of pages9
JournalHuman Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Adjuvants
  • Antigenic drift
  • Cross-protection
  • Influenza vaccine
  • Intradermal
  • MF59™

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Medicine(all)


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