Cross-talk between microbiota and immune fitness to steer and control response to anti PD-1/PDL-1 treatment

Andrea Botticelli, Ilaria G. Zizzari, Federica Mazzuca, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Lorenza Putignani, Luca Marchetti, Chiara Napoletano, Marianna Nuti, Paolo Marchetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) are improving the survival of cancer patients, however only the 20-30% of treated patients present clinical benefits. Toxicity represents the major cause of reduced dosage, delayed drug administration and therapy discontinuation. Hence in the context of multiple treatment possibilities, the identification of predictive markers of response and toxicity is a challenging approach for drug selection in order to obtain the best clinical benefit while minimizing the side effects. The loss of the protective function of intestinal barriers that interacts with the environment measured as increased intestinal permeability and the changes occurring in the microbiota composition have been proposed as a mechanism potentially explaining the pathogenesis of immune related toxicity.In this review we discuss the new perspectives on the involvement of PD-1 and PDL-1 in the cross talk between gut microbiota and immune fitness and how gut microbiota impacts on the efficacy of anti-PD-1 and anti-PDL-1 treatments in cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8890-8899
Number of pages10
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 28 2016


  • Journal Article
  • Review


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