Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal disease for which radical surgery and chemotherapy represent the only curative options for a small proportion of patients. Recently, FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine have improved the survival of metastatic patients but prognosis remains poor. A pancreatic tumor microenvironment is a dynamic milieu of cellular and acellular elements, and it represents one of the major limitations to chemotherapy efficacy. The continued crosstalk between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment causes immunosuppression within pancreatic immune infiltrate increasing tumor aggressiveness. Several potential targets have been identified among tumor microenvironment components, and different therapeutic approaches are under investigation. In this article, we provide a qualitative literature review about the crosstalk between the tumor microenvironment components and immune system in pancreatic cancer. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting the tumor microenvironment and we show the ongoing trials.
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