RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To estimate recurrence risk after surgery in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by employing tumoral and peritumoral radiomics analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred twenty-four surgically treated stage IA-IIB NSCLC patients' data from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively collected. Patient outcome was defined as local recurrence (LR), distant metastasis (DM), and (sum of LR and DM) total recurrence (TR) at follow-up. Volumetric region of interests (ROIs) were drawn for the tumor, peritumoral lung parenchyma (2 cm around the tumor) and involved lobe on CT images. Ninety-four (morphological, first-order, textural, fractal-based) radiomics features were extracted from the ROIs and datasets were created from single or combined ROIs. Predictive models were built with radiomics signature (RS) and clinicopathological data, and the area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the performance. Radiomics score was calculated with the best models' feature coefficients, low- and high-risk groups of patients defined accordingly. Kaplan-Meier curves were built, and the log-rank test was used for comparison among low- and high-risk groups. Differences in recurrence risk among the two risk groups were calculated (chi-square test).
RESULTS: Fifty-six patients developed TR (25 LR, 31 DM). The tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage recurrence predictability (AUCTR 0.680; AUCDM 0.672; AUCLR 0.580) was substantially improved when RS was added to the predictive model (AUCTR 0.760; AUCDM 0.759; AUCLR 0.750). Seventy-five percent of high-risk patients developed TR. Recurrence risk of the high-risk group was 16-fold higher than that of the low-risk group (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Combination of the tumoral and peritumoral RS with TNM staging system outperformed TNM staging alone in individualized recurrence risk estimation of patients with surgically treated NSCLC.