Current concepts on cleft lip and palate etiology

V. Candotto, Luca Oberti, F. Gabrione, G. Greco, D. Rossi, M. Romano, S. Mummolo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most common craniofacial anomaly affecting around 1 in 700 live births worldwide. Clefts of the human face can be classified anatomically as cleft palate only (CPO), cleft lip only (CLO), cleft lip and palate (CLP) or a combined group of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), based on different in embryologic development. These malformations have some genetic origin, in fact several association studies have been performed to obtain important information about the candidate genes; but more important are gene-environment interactions that play an increasing role in its etiology. Epidemiological studies have shown how environmental factors (alcohol, smoking, drugs), as well as possible gene-environment interactions, play an important role in the onset of the malformation. On the contrary, folic acid intake seems to have a protective effect. In this review we analyze the role of environmental factors related to onset of cleft.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-152
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2019


  • Alcohol
  • Cleft
  • Folic acid
  • Smoke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Physiology
  • Immunology
  • Oncology
  • Endocrinology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cancer Research


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