Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed in premenopausal women. In this age group, breast tumors tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages and to harbor more aggressive biological features. In addition, specific age-related issues including genetic counseling, fertility preservation, impact on social and couple relationships, working life, and management of long-term side effects should be considered highly relevant when managing early breast cancer in premenopausal women. Therefore, the care of these patients is particularly complex and a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory. The present review summarizes the current state of art in the adjuvant systemic treatment of premenopausal women with early breast cancer focusing on the optimal chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and targeted therapy approaches in this specific patient population. © The Author(s) 2020.