Current status of three-dimensional echocardiography.

S. De Castro, R. Adorisio, J. Azevedo, N. G. Pandian

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Volume rendered three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE), a rapidly emerging imaging method, offers clinicians and surgeons a new perspective for visualizing the heart. Using both transthoracic and transesophageal approach this new methodology enables qualitative and quantitative information of cardiac disorders to be obtained. 3DE image projections have allowed visualization of intracardiac structures and great vessels and delineation of their pathology in a comprehensive manner. Experimental and clinical studies suggest that 3DE is likely to play a valuable role in the evaluation of various cardiac and flow disorders and in planning interventions and surgery. In addition, 3DE has been applied to derive quantitative measurements of volume, mass and dimensions of the left and right ventricles and also other cardiac lesions, such as atrial and ventricular septal defects. Every aspect of 3DE is in continuous evolution. Faster and more highly automated image processing could make the technique more easily applicable in the clinical scenario.

Original languageEnglish
JournalRevista Portuguesa de Cardiologia
Volume20 Suppl 1
Publication statusPublished - 2001


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