Current therapy in ckd patients can affect vitamin k status

Mario Cozzolino, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Manuel Alfredo Podestà, Paola Ciceri, Andrea Galassi, Lorenzo Gasperoni, Gaetano La Manna

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a higher risk of cardiovascular (CVD) morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. The links between CKD and CVD are not fully elucidated but encompass both traditional and uremic-related risk factors. The term CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) indicates a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal levels of calcium, phosphate, PTH and FGF-23, along with vitamin D deficiency, decreased bone mineral density or altered bone turnover and vascular calcification. A growing body of evidence shows that CKD patients can be affected by subclinical vitamin K deficiency; this has led to identifying such a condition as a potential therapeutic target given the specific role of Vitamin K in metabolism of several proteins involved in bone and vascular health. In other words, we can hypothesize that vitamin K deficiency is the common pathogenetic link between impaired bone mineralization and vascular calcification. However, some of the most common approaches to CKD, such as (1) low vitamin K intake due to nutritional restrictions, (2) warfarin treatment, (3) VDRA and calcimimetics, and (4) phosphate binders, may instead have the opposite effects on vitamin K metabolism and storage in CKD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1609
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism
  • Vascular calcification
  • Vitamin K
  • Warfarin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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