Cutaneous manifestations of HAV, HBV, HCV

Emanuele Cozzani, Astrid Herzum, Martina Burlando, Aurora Parodi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hepatotropic viral infections are a relevant global health problem and present multiple extrahepatic manifestations in addition to hepatic disease. Along with generic cutaneous symptoms correlated to the cholestatic liver disease that may arise during the infection, some cutaneous manifestations of hepatotropic viral infections are characteristic, enabling to suspect the underlying infection. This review will present the principal cutaneous manifestations of hepatotropic virus infection. Cutaneous manifestations are rare in HAV infections: These include urticaria, panniculitis, scarlatiniform eruption, evanescent skin rash, maculopapular prolonged rash, serum sickness-like illness rash, cutaneous vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia. The commonest cutaneous manifestation associated to HBV infection is serum sickness-like syndrome. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is among the most common and serious cutaneous manifestations of HBV infection. In children, HBV infection may acutely manifest as papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome), with non-pruritic, non-coalescing, round papules. Patients with chronic HBV infection may also develop mixed cryoglobulinemia, that is, inter alia, the most documented extrahepatic manifestation of HCV infection. Cutaneous lichen planus has been associated to HBV and HCV infection. As for oral lichen planus, the association with HBV and HCV is more debated. Interestingly, patients with oral lichen planus with HCV have a higher risk of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma. Dermatologists should be aware of the possible cutaneous manifestations associated to viral hepatitis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-12
Number of pages8
JournalItalian Journal of Dermatology and Venereology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Hepatitis
  • Review
  • Skin diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases


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