CXCR4 inhibitors: Tumor vasculature and therapeutic challenges

Filomena de Nigris, Concetta Schiano, Teresa Infante, Claudio Napoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


CXCL12, also known as SDF-1, is the single natural ligand for chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7. CXCL12 has angiogenic properties in normal endothelial tissue and is involved in the outgrowth and metastasis of CXCR4 expressing tumors. Recent investigations have indicated that CXCL12 levels increase after chemo- and anti- VEGF therapy, favouring recurrences. The blockade of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has emerged as a potential additional or alternative target for neo-adjuvant treatments. We have reviewed recent patent applications between 2008 and 2011 in tumor angiogenesis and the most clinical data supporting the potential use of anti-CXCR4 agents in this field. Among these, AMD3100, also known as Plerixaform (Mozobil® by Genzyme), is approved for stem cell mobilisation in patients with leukaemia, while BKT140 (Emory University), POL6326 (Polyphor Ag) and TG-0054 (ChemoCentryx) are currently in clinical trials in combination with chemotherapy for multiple myeloma and leukaemia. The aptamer Nox-A12 (Noxxon) is in trials for chronic lymphatic leukaemia treatment. MSX-122 (Metastatix) is in Phase I trials for solid tumor treatment, while CXCR7-specific inhibitor CCX2066 (ChemoCentryx) is still in preclinical studies. We have also considered other strategies, such RNA interference and miRNA, which could be tested for solid tumor adjuvant therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-264
Number of pages14
JournalRecent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Angiogenesis
  • Cancer
  • CXCL12
  • CXCR4
  • Metastasis
  • Vasculogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Drug Discovery


Dive into the research topics of 'CXCR4 inhibitors: Tumor vasculature and therapeutic challenges'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this