CyberKnife beam output factor measurements: A multi-site and multi-detector study

Laura Masi, Serenella Russo, Paolo Francescon, Raffaela Doro, Maria Cristina Frassanito, Maria Luisa Fumagalli, Giacomo Reggiori, Marco Marinelli, Irene Redaelli, Maria Pimpinella, Gianluca Verona Rinati, Carmelo Siragusa, Sabrina Vigorito, Pietro Mancosu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: New promising detectors are available for measuring small field size output factors (OFs). This study focused on a multicenter evaluation of two new generation detectors for OF measurements on CyberKnife systems. Methods: PTW-60019 microDiamond and W1 plastic scintillation detector (PSD) were used to measure OFs on eight CyberKnife units of various generations for 5-60. mm fixed cones. MicroDiamond and PSD OF were compared to routinely used silicon diodes data corrected applying published Monte Carlo (MC) factors. PSD data were corrected for Čerenkov Light Ratio (CLR). The uncertainties related to CLR determination were estimated. Results: Considering OF values averaged over all centers, the differences between MC corrected diode and the other two detectors were within 1.5%. MicroDiamond exhibited an over-response of 1.3% at 7.5. mm and a trend inversion at 5. mm with a difference of 0.2%. This behavior was consistent among the different units. OFs measured by PSD slightly under-responded compared to MC corrected diode for the smaller cones and the differences were within 1%. The observed CLR variability was 2.5% and the related variation in OF values was 1.9%. Conclusion: This study indicates that CyberKnife microDiamond OF require corrections below 2%. The results are enhanced by the consistency observed among different units. Scintillator shows a good agreement to MC corrected diode but CLR determination remains critical requiring further investigations. The results emphasized the value of a multi-center validation over a single center approach.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysica Medica
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • CyberKnife output factors
  • Multicenter evaluation
  • PTW-60019 microDiamond detector
  • W1 scintillation detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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