Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in normal sleep: Polysomnographic parameters in different age groups

Liborio Parrino, Mirella Boselli, Maria Cristina Spaggiari, Arianna Smerieri, Mario Giovanni Terzano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: The present study aimed at offering a standerized database for cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters across representative ages of life. Methods: CAP parameters were quantified in 40 healthy sleepers and polygraphically investigated in a partially sound-proof recording chamber under a standard laboratory setting. Four age groups were investigated (teenagers: 10-19 years; young adults: 20-39 years; middle-aged: 40-59 years; elderly: 60 years). Each group included 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females). Nocturnal recordings were accomplished after adaptation to the sleep laboratory that also served to rule out the presence of sleep-related disorders. The study indicated that CAP is a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep, with specific age-related characteristics across the life cycle. Results: CAP rate in NREM sleep, defined as the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total NREM sleep time, showed a U-shape profile with minimum in young adults (31.9%), maximum in the elderly group (55.3%), and intermediate values in teenagers (43.4%) and in middle-aged subjects (37.5%). The longest duration of CAP cycles was found among the older subjects (31 s). The highest amounts of subtypes A1 were identified in teenagers (n = 261), while the highest amounts of A2 and A3 subtypes occurred in the elderly group (n = 183). Across the ages, the level of arousal mostly fluctuated in stages 1 and 3, whereas stage 4 emerged as the most stable NREM stage. Overall, stage 2 better reflected the CAP values referred to as total NREM sleep. Conclusions: The periodic arousal fluctuations reflected by CAP are a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep with specific age-related variations across the life cycle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-450
Number of pages12
JournalElectroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology
Volume107
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 1998

Fingerprint

Sleep
Age Groups
Arousal
Life Cycle Stages
Young Adult
varespladib methyl
Databases

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Cyclic alternating pattern
  • Polysomnography
  • Sleep
  • Sleep arousal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in normal sleep : Polysomnographic parameters in different age groups. / Parrino, Liborio; Boselli, Mirella; Spaggiari, Maria Cristina; Smerieri, Arianna; Terzano, Mario Giovanni.

In: Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 107, No. 6, 01.12.1998, p. 439-450.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Parrino, Liborio ; Boselli, Mirella ; Spaggiari, Maria Cristina ; Smerieri, Arianna ; Terzano, Mario Giovanni. / Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in normal sleep : Polysomnographic parameters in different age groups. In: Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 1998 ; Vol. 107, No. 6. pp. 439-450.
@article{011fd4ab7206410786cd68a56ac89eca,
title = "Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in normal sleep: Polysomnographic parameters in different age groups",
abstract = "Objectives: The present study aimed at offering a standerized database for cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters across representative ages of life. Methods: CAP parameters were quantified in 40 healthy sleepers and polygraphically investigated in a partially sound-proof recording chamber under a standard laboratory setting. Four age groups were investigated (teenagers: 10-19 years; young adults: 20-39 years; middle-aged: 40-59 years; elderly: 60 years). Each group included 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females). Nocturnal recordings were accomplished after adaptation to the sleep laboratory that also served to rule out the presence of sleep-related disorders. The study indicated that CAP is a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep, with specific age-related characteristics across the life cycle. Results: CAP rate in NREM sleep, defined as the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total NREM sleep time, showed a U-shape profile with minimum in young adults (31.9{\%}), maximum in the elderly group (55.3{\%}), and intermediate values in teenagers (43.4{\%}) and in middle-aged subjects (37.5{\%}). The longest duration of CAP cycles was found among the older subjects (31 s). The highest amounts of subtypes A1 were identified in teenagers (n = 261), while the highest amounts of A2 and A3 subtypes occurred in the elderly group (n = 183). Across the ages, the level of arousal mostly fluctuated in stages 1 and 3, whereas stage 4 emerged as the most stable NREM stage. Overall, stage 2 better reflected the CAP values referred to as total NREM sleep. Conclusions: The periodic arousal fluctuations reflected by CAP are a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep with specific age-related variations across the life cycle.",
keywords = "Aging, Cyclic alternating pattern, Polysomnography, Sleep, Sleep arousal",
author = "Liborio Parrino and Mirella Boselli and Spaggiari, {Maria Cristina} and Arianna Smerieri and Terzano, {Mario Giovanni}",
year = "1998",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0013-4694(98)00108-4",
language = "English",
volume = "107",
pages = "439--450",
journal = "Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology",
issn = "0013-4694",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in normal sleep

T2 - Polysomnographic parameters in different age groups

AU - Parrino, Liborio

AU - Boselli, Mirella

AU - Spaggiari, Maria Cristina

AU - Smerieri, Arianna

AU - Terzano, Mario Giovanni

PY - 1998/12/1

Y1 - 1998/12/1

N2 - Objectives: The present study aimed at offering a standerized database for cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters across representative ages of life. Methods: CAP parameters were quantified in 40 healthy sleepers and polygraphically investigated in a partially sound-proof recording chamber under a standard laboratory setting. Four age groups were investigated (teenagers: 10-19 years; young adults: 20-39 years; middle-aged: 40-59 years; elderly: 60 years). Each group included 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females). Nocturnal recordings were accomplished after adaptation to the sleep laboratory that also served to rule out the presence of sleep-related disorders. The study indicated that CAP is a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep, with specific age-related characteristics across the life cycle. Results: CAP rate in NREM sleep, defined as the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total NREM sleep time, showed a U-shape profile with minimum in young adults (31.9%), maximum in the elderly group (55.3%), and intermediate values in teenagers (43.4%) and in middle-aged subjects (37.5%). The longest duration of CAP cycles was found among the older subjects (31 s). The highest amounts of subtypes A1 were identified in teenagers (n = 261), while the highest amounts of A2 and A3 subtypes occurred in the elderly group (n = 183). Across the ages, the level of arousal mostly fluctuated in stages 1 and 3, whereas stage 4 emerged as the most stable NREM stage. Overall, stage 2 better reflected the CAP values referred to as total NREM sleep. Conclusions: The periodic arousal fluctuations reflected by CAP are a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep with specific age-related variations across the life cycle.

AB - Objectives: The present study aimed at offering a standerized database for cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters across representative ages of life. Methods: CAP parameters were quantified in 40 healthy sleepers and polygraphically investigated in a partially sound-proof recording chamber under a standard laboratory setting. Four age groups were investigated (teenagers: 10-19 years; young adults: 20-39 years; middle-aged: 40-59 years; elderly: 60 years). Each group included 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females). Nocturnal recordings were accomplished after adaptation to the sleep laboratory that also served to rule out the presence of sleep-related disorders. The study indicated that CAP is a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep, with specific age-related characteristics across the life cycle. Results: CAP rate in NREM sleep, defined as the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total NREM sleep time, showed a U-shape profile with minimum in young adults (31.9%), maximum in the elderly group (55.3%), and intermediate values in teenagers (43.4%) and in middle-aged subjects (37.5%). The longest duration of CAP cycles was found among the older subjects (31 s). The highest amounts of subtypes A1 were identified in teenagers (n = 261), while the highest amounts of A2 and A3 subtypes occurred in the elderly group (n = 183). Across the ages, the level of arousal mostly fluctuated in stages 1 and 3, whereas stage 4 emerged as the most stable NREM stage. Overall, stage 2 better reflected the CAP values referred to as total NREM sleep. Conclusions: The periodic arousal fluctuations reflected by CAP are a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep with specific age-related variations across the life cycle.

KW - Aging

KW - Cyclic alternating pattern

KW - Polysomnography

KW - Sleep

KW - Sleep arousal

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032424685&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032424685&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0013-4694(98)00108-4

DO - 10.1016/S0013-4694(98)00108-4

M3 - Article

C2 - 9922091

AN - SCOPUS:0032424685

VL - 107

SP - 439

EP - 450

JO - Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology

JF - Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology

SN - 0013-4694

IS - 6

ER -