A total of 143 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with available karyotype (K) and FLT3 gene mutational status were assessed for minimal residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry. Twenty-two (16%) patients had favorable, 115 (80%) intermediate, and 6 (4%) poor risk K; 19 of 129 (15%) carried FLT3-ITD mutation. Considering post-consolidation MRD status, patients with good/intermediate-risk K who were MRD- had 4-year relapse-free survival (RFS) of 70% and 63%, and overall survival (OS) of 84% and 67%, respectively. Patients with good- and intermediate-risk K who were MRD + had 4-year RFS of 15% and 17%, and OS of 38% and 23%, respectively (P <.001 for all comparisons). FLT3 wild-type patients achieving an MRD - status, had a better outcome than those who remained MRD + (4-year RFS, 54% vs 17% P <.001; OS, 60% vs 23%, P = .002). Such an approach redefined cytogenetic/genetic categories in 2 groups: (1) low-risk, including good/intermediate K-MRD- with 4-year RFS and OS of 58% and 73%, respectively; and (2) high risk, including poor-risk K, FLT3-ITD mutated cases, good/intermediate K-MRD+ categories, with RFS and OS of 22% and 17%, respectively (P <.001 for all comparisons). In AML, the integrated evaluation of baseline prognosticators and MRD improves risk-assessment and optimizes postremission therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology